Fluids Applications
 Aerodynamic Drag Equation and Calculator Aerodynamic Drag is the opposing fluid drag force that acts on any moving solid body
 Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
 Properties of Fluids A fluid is any substance which flows because its particles are not rigidly attached to one another.
 Buoyancy Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
 Compressibility Compressibility is the measure of the change in volume a substance undergoes when a pressure is exerted on the substance.
 Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Review and Equations
 Pascal's Law Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluidpressure
 Control Volume Control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes.
 Volumetric Flow Rate volumetric flow rate (V ) of a system is a measure of the volume of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time.
 Mass Flow Rate Mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time
 Conservation of Mass Mass flow rates into a control volume are equal to all mass flow rates out of the control volume plus the rate of change of mass within the control volume.
 SteadyState Flow Steadystate flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at any single point in the system do not change over time.
 Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
Bernoulli's Equation
TwoPhase Fluid Flow
 TwoPhase Fluid Flow Twophase flow occurs in a system containing gas and liquid with a meniscus separating the two phases
 Flow Instability Unstable flow can occur in the form of flow oscillations or flow reversals.
 Pipe Whip If a pipe were to rupture, the reaction force created by the high velocity fluid jet could cause the piping to displace and cause extensive damage
 Water Hammer Water hammer is a liquid shock wave resulting from the sudden starting or stopping of flow.
 Pressure spike Pressure spike is the resulting rapid rise in pressure above static pressure caused by water hammer.
 Steam Hammer Steam hammer is a power hammer driven by steam.
 Operational Considerations Practical Application Water and steam hammer are not uncommon occurrences in industrial plants.
Centrifugal Pumps
Fluids and Flow Calculators
Pumps, Components, and Technology
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
 Airfoil AeroDynamics Characteristics Calculator Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity
 Flow Regimes Two flow regimes are laminar flow and turbulent flow
 Laminar Flow Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
 Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow Poseuille Law Equation
 Flow Velocity Profiles Not all fluid particles travel at the same velocity within a pipe.
 Average (Bulk) Velocity Ia single average velocity to represent the velocity of all fluid at that point in the pipe.
 Viscosity Viscosity is a fluid property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force.
 Ideal Fluid ideal fluid is one that is incompressible and has no viscosity.
 Reynolds Number Reynolds number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is dimensionless number of the physical characteristics of the flow.

Piping Hardware Design Data
 API IntegralJoint tubing Recommended Torque Table API IJ integraljoint tubing is available in OD sizes of 1.315 to 2.063 in.
 API NUE Tubing Recommended Torque Table Recommended Torque Table for API NUE Tubing.
 API Tubing Engineering Table Chart API Tubing Engineering Table Chart
 API Tubing Grade & Specifications The following guidelines apply to the use of API tubing grades.
 API Casing 4.500  5.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table Specification 5C3 of the American Petroleum Institute standardizes 14 casing sizes from 4.5 inches (11.43 cm) to 20 inches (50.80 cm) outside diameter
 API Casing 5.000  5.500 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.00  5.50.
 API Casing 5.500  6.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.50  6.625.
 API Casing 6.625  7.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 6.625  7.000 Dia.
 API Casing 7.000  7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.000  7.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 7.625  8.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625  8.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 9.625  10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 9.625  10.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 10.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 10.750  11.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 10.750  11.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 11.750  13.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 11.750  13.375 Dia. Table
 API Casing 13.500  18.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 13.500  18.375 Dia. Table
 Air Pressure Loss per Foot in Steel Pipe Table Estimated pressure drop at the given CFM of free air flow for steel pipe.
 Barlow's Formula, Calculator and MAOP Design Factors Barlow's formula is used to verify that pipe used for gathering, transmission, and distribution lines can safely withstand operating pressures.
 Chézy and Manning's Equation Manning's equation, which is based on Chezy's equation, is method to calculate the free surface flow within a channel.
 Copper Tubing Size Chart ASTM B88 Dimensions and Physical Characteristics of Copper Tube: TYPE K
 Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Size and Physical Characteristics
 Copper Tube Size Chart Medical Gas, K and L Physical Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819.
 Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Equation
 HazenWilliams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Calculator Equation HazenWilliams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Equations and Calculator
 HazenWilliams Coefficients Table Typical C factors used in the Hazen–Williams equation
 Internal Dryseal Pipe Thread Tap Drill Sizes Recommendations Dryseal pipe threads are designated by specifying in sequence nominal size, thread series symbol, and class:
 Kinematic Viscosity Equation Application kinematic viscosity ν is the ratio of the viscosity to the density.
 Kinematic Viscosity Table Chart Liquids Average Kinematic Viscosity for selected liquid fluids.
 Torque Table for API UEU Tubing Recommended Torque for UEU Tubing
 Fluid Flow Open Channel Calculator Chézy and Manning's equation to determine the wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, flow area, Chézy coefficient and flow velocity
 Pipe Flow & Friction Factor Calculator Calculator will determine Head Loss, hL, and Frictional Pressure Drop, DPf, for given flow rate, Q, pipe diameter, D, pipe length, L, pipe roughness, e, and fluid properties, r & m.
 Manning's Roughness Coefficient Gauckley – Manning coefficient, often denoted as n , is an empirically derived coefficient
 Pipe Friction Calculations Within Pipe For Fluid Flow Pipe Friction drives the pipe size requirements within a fluid flow system and is dependant on the piping system design requirements.

 HazenWilliams Method for Pipe Friction and Pressure Drop HazenWilliams formula:
 Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves.
 Pipe Roughness Coefficients Roughness Coefficients of Specific roughness, HazenWilliams Coefficient and Manning Factor.
 Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 40 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Schedule 80 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions PVC, CPVC and other Schedule 40 Plastic Pipe.
 Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Applications Material characteristics for plastic PVC, CPVC
 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 1 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 2 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
 Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fittings Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fitting. Each pipeline fitting within the system
 Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe
Head Loss
 Head Loss Head loss is the reduction in the total head or pressure of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system.
 Friction Factor Friction factor has been determined to depend on the Reynolds number for the flow and the degree of roughness of the pipes
 Darcy's Equation Darcy's Equation Fluids Flow Equation  also called Darcy–Weisbach equation.
 Minor Losses Pressure losses that occur in pipelines due to bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called minor losses.
 Equivalent Piping Length Equivalent Piping Length Head Loss Equation Fluids
Natural Circulation
