#### Hydraulic and Pneumatic Design and Engineering

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 Hydraulic and Pneumatic General Chézy and Manning's Equation Manning's equation, based on Chezy's equation, is a common method to calculate the free surface flow. Fluid Flow Open Channel Calculator Calculator uses Chézy and Manning's equation Manning's Roughness Coefficient Manning's Roughness Coefficient Chart Table Boyle's Law for Behavior of Gas Boyles Law for Behavior of Gas Burst Pressure of Pipe or Tube Capillary Action Burst Pressure of Pipe or Tubing Equation Charles Law for Behavior of Gases Charles Law for Behavior of Gases Copper Tubing Size Chart ASTM B88 Copper tube, tubing types and standards based on ASTM B88, Type K, L, and M size, wall thickness and weight specifications. Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819. Copper Tube Size Chart Medical Gas, K and L Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819. Effective Force of a Cylinder at an Angle to Direction of the Load Travel Effective force of a cylinder working at an angle to direction of the load travel Fluid Characteristic Chart Fluid Characteristics Chart for Vapor Pressure kPa, Density, Kinematic Viscosity at specified temperature Fluid Pressure Loss Along Pipe Length of Uniform Diameter Pressure drop in pipes, Friction, Vertical pipe difference or elevation, Changes of kinetic energy, Calculation of pressure drop Fluids Flow, Aerodynamics Calculate, Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity, Laminar CF Turbulent CF, Density Fluid Power, Hydraulics Formula Equations Fluid Power applications, Fluid Velocity on a pipe, Charles Law, and more. Hazen-Williams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Calculator Equation Hazen–Williams equation is an empirical relationship which relates the flow of water in a pipe with the physical properties of the pipe Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table Typical C factors used in the Hazen–Williams equation Head Loss at Pipe Entrance Equations and Calculator using the head loss coefficient and head loss of a fluid at a smooth bellmouth pipe entrance. Head Loss at Pipe Abrupt Exit Equations and Calculator of a fluid. Head loss and head loss coefficient equation and calculator of a fluid in across a screen (circular metal wire mesh) inside a pipe. Head coefficient and head loss across angled louvers inside a pipe equation and calculator. Heat Equivalent of Fluid Power Heat Equivalent of Fluid Power Heat Radiating Capacity of a Steel Reservoir Heat Radiating Capacity of a Steel Reservoir Hydraulic Cylinder Piston Velocity Speed at which the piston rod of a hydraulic cylinder moves is based on the following equation: Hydraulic, General Fluid Power General Design Rules and Application Hydraulic Head Pressure Hydraulic head pressure or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. Hydrostatic Pressure vs Depth Liquid Table Chart Hydrostatic Pressure vs Depth Water Table Chart and Equation ISO Hydraulic Schematic Symbol Menu ISO Hydraulic Schematic Symbols and other useful data. Labyrinth Seal Labyrinth seal is a type of mechanical seal that provides a tortuous path to help prevent leakage. Liquid Filtering Systems The ideal liquid / fluid filtering system will remove all foreign contaminants from the liquid Moody Chart Moody diagram is a graph in non-dimensional form that relates the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor fD, Reynolds number Re, and relative roughness for fully developed flow in a circular pipe. Oil mist Eliminators Review Oil Mist Eliminators trap or filter out oil mist created by machines before the mist is expelled into the ambient environment. Pipe Schedules standard pipe schedule or pipes sizes as given by ANSI / ASME B36.10M and API 5L Pipe - Steel Burst Pressure Chart Chart defines the theoretical bursting pressure for carbon steel pipe rated Grade A, seamless tensile strength minimum 48,000 psi Pipe Strength Equation and Calculator Calculator and associated equations will determine the working pressure of a known diameter pipe. Pipe Max Flow Rate Maximum recommended flow rates at the given pressure for ANSI schedule 40 pipe. Pipeline Pigs, Pigging Review Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using devices known as "pigs" to perform various maintenance operations on a pipeline. Relationship Between Displacement and Torque of a Hydraulic Motor Equation to determine the torque created by a hydraulic motor with respect to the motors displacement. Side Load on Pump or Motor Shaft Side Load on Pump or Motor Shaft Equation Calculation Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI Straight Pipe Threads for Mechanical Joints, NPSM and NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard. Stainless Steel Pipe per. ASTM A312 and ANSI B36.19 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Table Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Industrial Applications Design for Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Welding Internal Floating Roof ( IFR ) for Storage Tanks Storage tanks systems may require an internal floating roof and a fixed or permanent roof system. Manometer Application Equation for Pressure U-Tube Manometer Equation and Calculator Manometer Pressure Calculator Manometer Application Equation Pneumatic System Components Air Gas Compressors Review Air compressor (gas compressor) is a machine that pressurizes or compresses air. Multi Stage Air Compressor Multi Stage Air Compressor design equations Reciprocating Air Compressor Reciprocating Type Air Compressors design equations Roots Type Air Compressor Roots Type Air Compressor design equations Compressed Air Dryers Review Compressed air dryers are used to remove water and other contaminants from compressed air Vacuum Pump Filter Review Vacuum pump filters (intake & exhaust) are designed to prevent dust and particulate matter from entering or exiting vacuum pump Vane Type Air Compressor Review and Design Equations Vane Type Air Compressor design equations Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems Aircraft Hydraulic System Overview Overview of hydraulic system used in aircraft. Premium membership required. Air Pressure Loss per Foot in Steel Pipe Table Estimated pressure drop table at the given CFM of free air flow for steel pipe. Compressed Air, Low Pressure Systems Guidance for designing low pressure compressed air systems with a maximum design operating pressure of 125 psig - Premium Membership Required Controls for Steam Power Plants Controls and control systems for steam power plants. - Premium Membership Required Hydraulic Pneumatic Cylinder Force and Pressure Equations and Calculations Equations will determine the applicable force and pressures of a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder. All units are given in inches. Fluids and Hydraulics Engineering and Design Handbook Premium Membership Required Pneumatic Actuator Design and Operation Pneumatic Actuator diagram of a pneumatic actuator is shown operates by a combination of force created by air and spring force. Linear Actuator Review Linear actuator is a mechanism or assembly that creates motion and force along a straight line utilizing an externally applied energy source Electric Solenoid Actuator Electric solenoid actuator consists of a coil, armature, spring, and stem. Basic Hydraulic Jack System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Jack System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Motor - Reversing System Schematic Power-driven pump operating a reversible rotary motor. Basic Hydraulic Open Center System Schematic Control-valve spool must be open in the center to allow pump flow to pass through the valve and return to the reservoir. Basic Hydraulic Open Center Series Connection System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Open Center Series Connection System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Open Center Series / Parallel Connection System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Open Center Series / Parallel Connection System Basic Hydraulic Open Center Flow Divider System Schematic Basic Hydraulic Open Center Flow Divider System Basic Hydraulic Closed Center System Schematic Closed-Center System Basic Hydraulic Fixed Displacement Pump and Accumulator Closed Center System Schematic Fixed Displacement Pump and Accumulator Closed-Center System Basic Hydraulic Variable Displacement Pump System Schematic Closed-center system with a variable-displacement pump in the neutral mode. Charging Pump within a Closed Center System Schematic Charging pump supplies only the makeup oil required in a system and provides some inlet pressure Hydraulic System Components Bag Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Consists of a seamless high-pressure shell, cylindrical in shape, with domed ends and a synthetic rubber bag Electric Motor Actuator Electric motor actuators vary widely in their design and applications. Fluid Accumulator - General Application Hydraulic accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which a non-compressible hydraulic fluid Hydraulic Actuator / Cylinder Design and Operation Typical piston-type hydraulic actuator Hydraulic Accumulator Sizing Calculations Most accumulators used within industry are limited to an operating pressure of 3000 psi. Hydraulic Shock Absorber Review Hydraulic Shock Absorbers utilize liquid fluid to convert mechanical energy into thermal energy. Pinch Valves Review Pinch valve is an hydraulic, pneumatic or industrial pipe valve having a full or partially restricted port control valve for flow passage control. Piston Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Accumulator consists of a cylinder assembly, a piston assembly, and two end-cap assemblies Spring Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Energy stored in springs to create a constant force on the liquid contained in an adjacent ram assembly. Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI Dimensional - size data for American National Standard Schedule 40 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe. Schedule 80 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI Data for American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC and Other Pipe Sizes and Dimensions Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC and Other Pipe Sizes and Dimensions Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Applications Plastic PVC, CPVC, other pipes commonly found within industrial and residential use within North America. O-Rings / Elastomers Rubber Molding Design Guidelines and Review Most rubber products made from vulcanized rubber O-Ring, Design Considerations General An O-ring , also known as a packing , is a flexible gasket in the shape of a loop O-Ring Installation, Design & Specification Gland (Groove) Sizes Static Cylindrical Applications Male and Female O-Ring Gland / Groove Installation O-Ring Installation, Design & Specification Gland (Groove) Sizes Static Flange Application O-Ring Installation Design and Specification Static Flange Application O-Ring Installation Design & Specification For Dynamic / Reciprocating Applications O-Ring Installation Design and Specification For Dynamic / Reciprocating Applications O-Ring Installation Compressive Load vs Hardness Chart .070 Diameter ORing Load required to compress a .070 diameter o-ring with respect to percent compression of diameter and the applicable hardness - Shore A scale. O-Ring Installation Compressive Load vs Hardness Chart .103 Diameter ORing .103 diameter o-ring with respect to percent compression of diameter and the applicable hardness - Shore A scale. O-Ring Installation Compressive Load vs Hardness Chart .139 Diameter ORing .139 diameter o-ring with respect to percent compression of diameter and the applicable hardness - Shore A scale. O-Ring Installation Compressive Load vs Hardness Chart .210 Diameter ORing .210 diameter o-ring with respect to percent compression of diameter and the applicable hardness - Shore A scale. O-Ring Installation Compressive Load vs Hardness Chart .275 Diameter ORing .275 diameter o-ring with respect to percent compression of diameter and the applicable hardness - Shore A scale.

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