Minor Losses Fluid Flow Equation  Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components
The losses that occur in pipelines due to
bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called
minor losses. This is a
misnomer because in many cases these losses are more
important than the losses
due to pipe friction, considered in the preceding section.
For all minor losses in turbulent
flow, the head loss varies as the square of the velocity.
Thus a convenient method of expressing
the minor losses in flow is by means of a loss coefficient
(K).
Values of the loss coefficient
(K) for typical situations and fittings is found in standard
handbooks. The form of Darcys
equation used to calculate minor losses of individual fluid
system components is expressed
by Equation 315.
Where:
g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.174 ft/s 2 = 9.806 m/s 2 . h_{m} = head loss due to a fitting and has units of ft or m of fluid. It is the energy loss due to a fitting per unit weight of fluid.
K = minor loss coefficient for valves, bends, tees, and other fittings  table of minor loss coefficients .
The minor loss calculation is valid for open channels (including partially full culverts) as well as closed conduits (circular or noncircular) flowing full. The minor loss calculation does not check for unreasonable inputs such as negative values. All values should be entered as positive.
