Tolerance Charts

Description


Drilling is an operation performed by a rotary end cutting tool with one or more cutting edges and usually one or more flutes for the passage of chips and cutting fluid. Holes drilled by this process are limited by the available drill sizes. 

Drilled hole locations and size variations are cumulative of several manufacturing variables. 

The ANSI B4.1 Standard arranged fits classes in three general groups according to the field and type of usage. 

This Standard defines preferred limits and fits
for press fits applications of nonthreaded
cylindrical features


This Calculator will determine the preferred
size and limit tolerances for Running or sliding
to interferencelocational fits per ANSI B 4.1.


This Calculator will determine the preferred
size and limit tolerances for a force or shrink
fit per ANSI B 4.1.


This calculator will determine a variety of
force, stress and other design parameters for
press fit applications.


Positional & Limits of Size


International Tolerances per. ISO 919 and ISO
286 1993


International Tolerance Grade Chart


Metric Mechanical Tolerance Preferred Size Data


Plus and minus tolerance for the specific ISO
286 hole tolerance data.


Plus and minus tolerance for the specific ISO
286 Shaft tolerance data.


The following are general geometrical tolerances
per. ISO 2768 for the following: Linear Dimensions,
External Radius and Chamfer Heights, Straightness
and Flatness, Perpendicularity, Symmetry, Runout


Slip & Press fit design tolerances for ANSI
size dowel pins.


Hole  Fastener Fits for ANSI Hex Head Blots
and Screws.


Hole  Fastener Fits


General Tolerances
Shaft  Holes Fits Tolerance classes
per ANSI ASME B4.1

Fixed & Rotating, Class I, II, III, IV,
V


Most extension springs are specified with initial
tension, which is an internal force that holds
the coils tightly together.


Torsional Spring wirediameter tolerances, which
are usually quite close, then govern the dimensional
variations in body length and therefore in the
spacing of the spring arms.


Hole  Fastener MEchanical Tolerance Fits Chart


Drill and Counterbore Sizes for Socket Head
Cap Screws per. ASME B18.3


Design for shafttoshaft alignment is the positioning
of the rotational centers of two or more shafts
so that the shafts are coaxial when the machine
is in operation. The purpose of shaft alignment
is to increase the operating life span of rotating
machinery and to achieve high efficiency.


Dimensions of Go and No Go Gages for Spline
Sockets per. ASME B18.3


Dimensions of Go and No go Gages for Hexagon
Sockets per. ASME B18.3


Drilled hole mechanical tolerance capabilities
data.


This calculator will determine the gage class
and tolerance per ANSI ASME B89.1.5 for cylindrical
I.D and O.D. gauges.


A treatise on the development of gaging systems
for interchangeable manufacturing


An inspection master gear is used with selected fixtures to measure the variations in a manufactured gear. 

During the rolling process the rollers bow slightly,
which results in the sheet metal being thinner
on the edges.

Machining Tool Relief Grooves Dimensions and Tolerances

Size, Dimensions
and Tolerances for Machined Tool Relief Grooves.
Per industry standards
DIN ISO 509 and IS 3428


Accuracy Specification of Gauge Blocks by JIS
B 75061997 Japan Specification.


Accuracy Specification for Gauge Blocks by BS
4311: Part 1: 1993 (UK) standard at 20??C.


The following table gives the Accuracy Specifications
for Gage Blocks by ASME B89.1.9 (USA) at 20??C.


This table defines Ring gage and Master Disc
mechanical tolerances per B89.1.51998 (R2009)


Table of tolerances for gauge blocks according
to DIN 861, corresponds with ISO 3650 and SS
3348).


Gauge block calibration, application and history
 143 pages developed by industry standards
organization NIST

GD&T and Mechanical Tolerancing
Books Related  Online 
Geometric Boundaries II, GD&T per. ASME Y 14.52009

Interpretation and Application of ASME Y14.52009
GD&T

Geometric Boundaries Workbook Answers

Access to Geometric Boundaries Workbook Questions


Geometric Boundaries, Interpretation and Application
of GD&T per. ASME Y14.5M1994


Geometrical Boundaries, Interpretation and Application
of G&T per. ISO 1101

Geometric Metrology
per. ASME Y14.52009

Dimensional Tolerances Inspection & Practices
in Manufacturing Fundamentals

Limited Dimension Drawings
LDD, Critical Feature Drawings

Presentation and research for Limited Dimension
Drawings LDD, Critical Feature Drawings

Differences
Between ASME Y14.52009 and ISO 1101 Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing

Quick Guide to differences Between ASME Y14.52009
and ISO 1101 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing


The ASME
Y14.52018 standard is the only dimensioning and
tolerancing guideline for the design language of
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T.)
within the United States. 

Gauge block calibration is one of the oldest
high precision calibrations made in dimensional
metrology. Since their invention at the turn
of the century gauge blocks have been the major
source of length standardization for industry.
In most measurements of such enduring


The pitch diameter of a screw thread may be
measured very accurately by means of some form
of dial caliper or micrometer and three wires
of equal diameter.


Overview of changes to the ASME Standard


Using random (not cluster) sampling.

Dimensional Measurement Planning

This resource requires a Premium
Membership

GD&T Training Videos and
Related Dimensioning and Tolerancing Applications


This tool will assist in design and selection
of the correct geometric tolerances GD&T
per ASME Y14.52009


Dovetail slides that must be machined accurately
to a given width are commonly gaged by using
a gage pin..


100 % interchangability and Six Sigma assembly
and part tolerance analysis calculator.


Hole MMC Maximum Material
Condition Tolerance Chart Calculator per .ASME
Y14.52009, ASME Y14.5M  1994, or ISO
1101 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T).


Shaft Diameter MMC Maximum Material Condition
Tolerance Chart Calculator

GD&T Training & Applications Videos

GD&T and related training videos


This method is extensively used in checking
the accuracy of threaded plug gages and other
precision screw threads.


This video illustrates a parallelism application
on an ascast box requiring post machining.
GD&T training


When RMB is applied to a geometric tolerance
to multiple datum features of size to establish
a single datum element(s), the datum feature
simulator for each feature shall be at a fixed
location and orientation relative to each other


This application video explores a couple of
GD&T methods to refine the orientation of
two hole features for a piston connecting rod.


GD&T Perpendicularity of Hole Application.
Perpendicularity is the condition of a surface,
axis, or line, which is 90 deg. from a datum
plane or a datum axis.


Circularity describes the condition on a surface
of revolution (cylinder, cone, or sphere) where
all points of the surface intersected by any
plane are... more

Straightness of Surface GD&T Training Application
Video

This video illustrates a Straightness of Surface
Application on a cam follower wheel.


Flatness Gasket Application  This video discusses
how to determine the right Flatness tolerance
when a gasket is used between surfaces. GD&T
Training


Circular Runout Surface Perpendicular to Datum
Axis


Straightness of Axis Application  This video
discusses how to determine the right straightness
tolerance when the outer and inner tolerance
boundaries are known.

GD&T Related Tolerance
Calculators, Tools, Geometric Dimensioning Tolerancing
Training Calculators 

One of the most frequent questions asked is, “how do I choose a plug (pin) gauge for my measurement application.” Therefore I put together this webpage and calculator to help you understand and calculate the concept of fixed limit gauging. 

This book is written for those professionals within the design, drafting, engineering and manufacturing fields that desire a practical guide for the interpretation and application of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing.
I have directed my efforts for technical professionals applying geometric dimensioning and tolerancing and attempted to comprehensively cover the concepts and applications that are, and will be the most relevant within industry today and the future. The choice of examples are those which represent typical applications and may be combined as applicable to create products.
Much of the text material has been organized so that the topics appear and build the necessary knowledge required to proceed to the next subject matter. 
Dimensional Tolerances for Steel Castings 
Allowances for Steel Castings Dimensional allowances that must be applied in the production of castings are due to the fact that different metals contract at different rates during solidification and cooling. The shape of the part has a major influence on the ascast dimensions of the casting. Some of the principal allowances are discussed briefly here. 

The following are definitions commonly used
throughout industry when discussing GD&T
or composing engineering drawing notes.


PLTZF tolerance applied at MMC , FRTZF tolerance
applied at MMC, All dimensional unit applied
with uniform units  all inches, mm, m, etc.
, Datum applied at RFS, FRTZF datum is perpendicular
to features , X and Y measurements taken with
datum's established


GD&T Composite
Position Tolerance Calculator for Dimensional Inspection:
External Feature of Size  post, tab, pipe, etc..


This calculator calculates the asmeasured Concentricity
per. ASME Y14.5  2009, Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Standard, also know as Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerancing (GD&T).


The purpose of this report is to describe various tolerance stacking methods without going into the theoretical details and derivations behind them. For those the reader is referred to Scholz (1995). For each method we present the assumptions and then give the tolerance stacking formulas. This will allow the user to make an informed choice among the manya vailable methods. 

This calculator will determine the unknown variable
of a floating fastener design condition using
ASME Y14.5  2009 and ISO 1101 and derivative
GD&T standards.


This calculator calculates fixed fastener position
tolerances utilizing principles and concepts
within ASMEY14.52009 and ASME Y14.5M  1994,
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T).


This tolerance calculator will calculate the
required field compensating for the effects
of the fastener projection. Calculations assume
a lineline case at tolerance and featureofsize
maximum departure. Calculations are compliant
with geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
standards.


This calculator will calculate the position
tolerances for two coaxial mating diameters.


This calculator will calculate the position
tolerances for three coaxial mating diameters.


This calculator will convert coordinate measurements
to position tolerances. Two inputs are required
to determine the Geometric Tolerance.


This calculator will convert coordinate measurements
to position tolerances for spherical applications.
Three inputs are required.


Sphericity is, naturally, a measure of how spherical
an object is. Defined by Wadell in 1932, the
sphericity ψ of a particle is the ratio
of the surface area of a sphere with the same
volume as the given spherical particle to the
surface area of the particle.


This engineering calculator will determine the
true and allowed position tolerance and graph
the resulting data points.


An accurate method of finding or checking the radius on a part is illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. In this method, we may calculate either an inside or an outside radius by the following equations: 

For bolt circles that are too large to measure
using typical methods or the measuring tools.
Measuring or determining distances for a bolt
circle geometry can be facilitated using the
following equations and methods.


This calculator will determine the even number
of holes within a bolt circle.


Even Number of Holes Within Circle #2: To measure
or determine the unknown distance "c"
over adjacent hole or pins (largest gage pins
that can fit into holes) within a bolt circle
of holes (n or number of bolts holes must be
even and greater than 4)


Odd Number of Holes in Circle : To measure the
unknown distance x over semiopposite holes
using pins (largest gage pins that can fit into
holes) and the number of holes n is odd and
greater than 3, and the distance c between adjacent
holes (pins) is known


Manufacturing, quality and measurement calculations
and methods manual. Premium membership required.


This calculator will determine a bolt circle
pattern and X Y coordinates as well as plot
data. Bolt circle can be rotated as well.


This calculator will
determine the Standard Deviation from a know set
of measurements.


A Study of tolerance limits and fits for engineering
purposes, with full tables of all recognized
and published tolerance systems.

Shaft Tolerance Classifications for Metric Radial
Ball and Roller Bearings

Shaft Tolerance Classifications for Metric Radial
Ball and Roller Bearings of ABEC1 and RBEC1
Tolerance Classes ANSI/ABMA 7


Housing Hole Tolerance Classifications for Metric
Radial Ball and Roller Bearings of ABEC1 and
RBEC1 Tolerance Classes


This engineering
design calculator and related formulas will determine
the nominal, maximum and minimum coupling gap.


Notes: Projection within block material is fixed,
Diameter D1 is typically MMC size.


This calculator determines the maximum separation
at two pin/bolt locations with an intermediate
strap securing together.


This spreadsheet allows the user to perform
a complete Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility
(GR&R) study. Both Analysis of Variance
and Xbar/Range calculations are performed. Up
to three operators, ten parts and three trials
can be accommodated. The GR&R is reported
in terms of percent of study variation and percent
of tolerance. The percentage of equipment variation,
appraiser variation, part variation, and the
number of distinct categories that can be distinguished
are also displayed.


In all balancing problems, the product of the
counterbalancing mass (or weight) and its radius
are calculated; it is thus necessary to select
either the mass or the radius and then calculate
the other value from the product of the two
quantities.


Manufacturing fixtures rotating at a high speed
require balancing. Often it is assumed that
the center of gravity of the work piece and
fixture and of the counterbalancing masses are
in the same plane; however, this is not usually
the case. Counterbalancing masses are required
in two separate planes to prevent excessive
vibration or bearing loads at high speeds.


Mechanical Tolerances and Fit Terminology:
When the radial interference and interface
radius (R) is known, the interface pressure (p)
can be calculated using equations provided on
Thick Wall Cylinder Press or Shrink Fits Equations
and Calculator ( Eq. 5) depending on whether
the collar and shaft are made of the same material,
and depending on whether the shaft is solid or hollow.

Bolt Spacing Tolerance Analysis Formula and Calculator

When two or more components are assembled by
means of bolts, it is often required to specify
tolerances for the center to center distance
between holes which the bolts secure thru.


The width of the knurling should not exceed the diameter of the blank, and knurling wider than the knurling tool cannot be produced unless the knurl starts at the end of the work. 

Major Diameter Tolerances
for External Threads of Special
Diameters, Pitches, and Lengths of
Engagement (UNS/UNRS)  Classes
1A, 2A, and 3A 

Powder metal parts are made by compacting metal powders in a precision die. Subsequently, the compacted part is ejected and then sintered in a controlled atmosphere to develop its mechanical and physical properties. 

The aim of this paper was to present the experimental study of MDF milling process’s dimensional accuracy conducted by means of standard CNC router. 

A direct extrusion is made in the previously described manner. The maximum circumscribing circle for aluminum, magnesium, copper, and copper alloys is approximately 305 mm (12 in.), but some of the new presses have increased the maximum circle to 685 mm (27 in.). The maximum circumscribing circle for alloy steel and stainless steel is 136.5 mm (5.375 in.), and for carbon and titanium, 165.1 mm (6.5 in.). 

For bearing mating shafts and housing are provided within the tables below are defined by ISO tolerances for shafts and housings (ISO 286) in conjunction with the tolerances Δdmp for the bore and ΔDmp for the outside diameter of the bearings per. (DIN 620). 

Tolerance Table for Regularly Used Fits Excerpt from JIS B 0401 Table Calculator . ISO system of limits and fits Part 1: Bases of tolerances, deviations and fits per. JIS B 04011. Hole and Shaft Tolerances range from greater than 0 to 500 mm.


The surefit or extreme variability of a function of several uncorrelated random variables could be found by substituting values for the variables to find the maximum and the minimum value of the function 

Metric ISO Plastic Molding Tolerances per. ISODIN 16901 

Tolerances adopted by the Drop Forging Association in 1937 apply to forgings under 100 pounds each. 

For parts manufactured by forging that are produced in twopart impression dies 

Steel Die Forging Tolerances for straightness, flatness and tolerances for centertocenter dimensions. Drop and vertical press forgings. EN 102431 Steel die forgings 
Tolerances on
dimensions 

Tolerances for fillet, edge radii, burrs and sheared ends 

Steel Die Forgings Tolerance Calculator NonCircular Forging. To determine the tolerances applicable to a given forging the following information is required in addition to the dimensions of the forging:
 mass of forging;
 shape of die line;
 category of steel used;
 shape complexity factor;
 type of dimension.


To determine the tolerances applicable to a given forging the following information is required in addition to the dimensions of the forging: mass of forging; shape of die line; category of steel used; shape complexity factor; type of dimension. 

Drop and vertical press forgings per. EN102431 Forging grade F normal Tolerances for length, and diameter. 

Drop and vertical press forgings per. EN102431 Forging grade E Tolerances for length, and diameter. 

Thickness tolerances govern permissible variations in any dimension which crosses the die line. All variations in thickness, due to dieclosure, diewear and shrinkage are included in the thickness tolerances. The characteristics of the forging process require that, for any given forging, all tolerances for thickness
dimensions are uniform. 

Thickness tolerances govern permissible variations in any dimension which crosses the die line. All variations in thickness, due to dieclosure, diewear and shrinkage are included in the thickness tolerances. The characteristics of the forging process require that, for any given forging, all tolerances for thickness
dimensions are uniform. 

Grade E per. EN102431 is for closer tolerances to assist in accommodating those instances in which the normal manufacturing standards are inadequate. 

Forging grade E providing closer tolerances to assist in accommodating those instances in which the normal manufacturing standards are not adequate for function. 

Kelly Bramble, GDTP, FAA A&P
Introduction, Chapter 1
What is DFM & DFA? 1.16
Culture nomics 1.22
Product Lifecycle 1.32
Engineering and Design Approach 1.35
Concurrent Engineering 1.41
SetBased Concurrent Engineering 1.47
Design for Standardization 1.51
Schedule Estimating 1.56
Manufacturing Process Selection 1.70


The hole sizes for inch fasteners are patterned after USA common usage and the general clearances translated from the metric standard. The hole tolerances are based on the ISO System of Limits and Fits, as required by ISO 273. 

The recommended drill and hole sizes for metric fasteners are tabulated in this table calculator. The minimum recommended hole is the drill size and the maximum recommended hole size is based on standard tolerances. 

Each nominal threaded insert size is standardized in five lengths, which are multiples of the insert's nominal diameter. 

