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### Geometric Boundaries Interpretation and Application of GD&T per. ASME Y14.5M-1994

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Open: Geometric Boundaries, Interpretation and Application of GD&T per. ASME Y14.5M-1994

Written and Illustrated by Kelly L. Bramble

1.2 Preface
1.3 Acknowledgments
1.9 Introduction
1.10 First and Third Angle Projection
1.10 Standards Based on ISO or ASME Standards
1.13 Corporate Standards
1.14 How the Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing System Works
1.15 Tolerances, Features and Characteristics
1.16 Tolerance Hierarchy
1.17 Feature Control Frame, Rule #2 & 2a
1.18 Position and Limit Tolerance General Overview and Contrast
1.19 Common Symbols ASME Y14.5M - 1994
1.20 Dimensioning and Tolerancing General Rules
1.21 Workshop

2.1 Limit Tolerances
2.2 General – Dimensioning System Limit Tolerancing
2.3 Limit tolerancing, Square – Round Tolerance Zone Contrast and Advantage
2.4 Implied 90 Degree Angle, Expressing Limit Tolerancing
2.5 Dimension and Tolerance Expression – Millimeter Tolerances and Dimensions
2.7 Inch Tolerances and Dimensions
2.9 Angular Dimensioning and Tolerancing
2.10 Slotted holes, Arcs, Countersink hole
2.11 Counter bored Holes, Countersink on curved surface
2.12 Internal External Chamfers, Keyseats
2.13 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning
2.14 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensions in Tabular Form, Polar Dimensioning
2.15 Repetitive Features
2.16 Flat Taper
2.17 Conical Taper
2.18 Statistical Tolerancing
2.19 Dimension Origin
2.20 Screw Threads, Gears, Splines Tolerance Application
2.21 Angular Surface Defined by Limit and Angle Dimension
2.24 Features With and Without Size
2.25 Material Condition, MMC, LMC
2.26 Rule #1, Envelope Principle
2.29 Rule #1 Limitations, Exceptions
2.31 Workshop

3.1 Datums
3.2 Datum Reference Frame, DRF - General
3.3 Immobilization of component and measurement
3.4 Datum symbols and identification Datum identification features without size
3.5 Datum identification features with size
3.7 Datum associated with feature control frame
3.8 Datum feature, simulated datum, and theoretical datum plane
3.13 Setup and inspection of datums, datum and dimensional measurement equipment
3.15 Sequence of datum features
3.16 Sequence of datum features relates part to datum reference frame
3.17 Cylindrical datum feature
3.18 Parts with angular orientation
3.20 Orientation of two datum planes through a hole
3.22 Partial datum surface as datum features
3.23 Multiple datum features, single datum
3.24 Inclined datum features
3.25 Workshop

4.1 Datum Targets
4.2 General
4.3 Datum target point symbol, application
4.4 Datum target area
4.5 Datum target line
4.6 Dimensioning datum targets
4.7 Primary datum plane established by three datum target areas
4.8 Primary datum plane established by two datum target points and one datum target line.
4.9 Step datum feature
4.10 Datum target lines and areas
4.11 Primary Datum Axis Established by Datum Target points on a Single Cylindrical Feature
4.12 Equalizing Datum
4.14 Secondary Datum Axis
4.15 Sheet Metal With Multiple Datum Targets in Restrained Condition
4.16 Workshop

5.1 Form
5.2 General
5.3 Flatness
5.4 Flatness applied on a unit basis
5.5 Flatness applied on unit basis with overall control
5.6 Straightness
5.7 Straightness Per Unit Basis
5.8 Straightness applied in two directions
5.9 Straightness of a surface (Cylindrical)
5.10 Straightness of a feature of size @ RFS
5.11 Straightness of a feature of size @ MMC
5.12 Straightness per unit length With specified total straightness
5.13 Cylindricity
5.14 Circularity (Roundness)
5.15 Circularity of Cone
5.16 Circularity of Sphere
5.17 Circularity with Average Size
5.18 Workshop

6.1 Orientation
6.2 General
6.3 Perpendicularity - Surface
6.4 Perpendicularity – Surface Two Datum's
6.5 Perpendicularity – Center plane
6.6 Perpendicularity at MMR Internal Feature – Center Plane
6.7 Perpendicularity – External feature of Size Axis
6.8 Perpendicularity – Internal feature of size axis
6.9 Perpendicularity –Threaded Hole or Inserts Projected Tolerance Zone
6.10 Parallelism
6.11 Parallelism Control of Two Hole Features
6.12 Parallelism Hole Relative to Plane
6.13 Angularity Overview and Surface to Surface
6.14 Angularity Surface to Surface with Location Control
6.15 Angularity Hole to Planar Datum
6.16 Secondary Datum Application
6.17 Workshop

7.1 Tolerances of Location
7.3 General
7.4 Fundamental explanation of positional tolerancing
7.5 Differences between position tolerancing and limit tolerancing
7.6 Modifiers
7.7 Maximum material condition MMC
7.8 Least material condition LMC
7.9 External feature of size position tolerance boundaries with MMC modifier
7.10 Internal feature of size position tolerance boundaries with MMC modifier
7.11 External feature of size position tolerance boundaries with LMC modifier
7.12 Internal Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with LMC Specification
7.13 Zero positional tolerance at MMC
7.14 Position Tolerance at RFS
7.15 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation – Surface Datum’s
7.16 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation – Surface Datum’s
7.17 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation - Surface Datum’s
7.18 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation - Surface Datum’s
7.19 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation - Thru Hole Datum’s
7.20 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation – Thru Hole Datum’s
7.21 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation – Thru Hole Datum’s
7.22 Rectangular Coordinate Method
7.23 Positional tolerance at MMC relative to hole and slot datum feature
7.24 Bi-directional positional tolerancing, polar coordinate method
7.25 Different positional tolerance at each surface – Long Features
7.26 Circular pattern of holes
7.27 Positional tolerance at MMC relative to datum feature center planes
7.28 Positional tolerance at RFS of slots relative to surface datum features
7.29 Coaxial cylinders
7.30 Coaxial (Concentric) Control of Multiple Hole-Counterbore Holes
7.31 Coaxial control of cylinders
7.32 Hole pattern located perpendicular to cylindrical datum
7.33 Holes Not Normal to DRF
7.34 Hole Pattern Located at Angle to Datum Reference Frame
7.35 Positional Tolerance at MMC of Spherical Feature
7.36 Positional Tolerance of Coaxial Holes of Same Size
7.37 Least Material Condition Application – Cylinder Wall Thickness
7.38 Positional Tolerance for Coaxiality With Datum Feature referenced at MMC
7.39 Positional Tolerance for Coaxially with Feature Referenced at Zero MMC Relative to Datum Feature at MMC
7.40 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum’s at MMC
7.41 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum Verification
7.42 Composite Positional Tolerancing
7.46 Composite Positional Tolerancing With Pattern Orientation Control
7.49 Concentricity
7.50 Concentricity Spherical Feature
7.53 Symmetry
7.54 Workshop

8.1 Profile
8.2 General
8.3 Profile Surface Definition
8.4 Profile of surface, Bilateral Tolerance
8.5 Profile of Surface, Bilateral Tolerance Between Symbol Alternative Practice
8.6 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning Without Dimension Lines
8.7 Profile any Surface, Unilateral (INSIDE) Tolerance
8.9 Profile of Surface, Unilateral (OUTSIDE) Tolerance
8.11 Profile of Surface, Bilateral Unequal Tolerance
8.12 Profile of Surface, All Around
8.13 Profile of Surface, Independent Form Control
8.14 Profile of Surface, Boundary Principle
8.15 Profile Tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces
8.16 Profile of Surface Tolerance Independent Form Control Not related to Datum
8.17 Profile of Line
8.18 Profile of Line Tapered Shape
8.19 Profile of Line Unilateral Inside
8.20 Profile of Line and Size Control
8.21 Composite Profile Tolerance
8.23 Composite Profile Tolerance With Rotation Control of PRC
8.24 Workshop

9.1 Runout
9.2 General
9.3 Circular Runout
9.4 Circular Runout - Tapered Surface
9.5 Circular Runout – Perpendicular Surface Surface
9.6 Total Runout
9.7 Total Runout – Tapered Surface
9.8 Total Runout – Perpendicular Surface
9.9 Run-Out With Plane as Datum
9.10 Run-Out Relative to Datum Surface and a Diameter
9.11 Run-Out With Two Datum Diameters
9.12 Multiple Cylinders Related to Each Other Runout Application
9.13 Runout Relating Separate Features to Each Other with Common Datum
9.14 Workshop

10.1 Coaxial Tolerance Comparison
11.1 Tolerance Analysis
11.2 Series Stack
11.3 Floating Fastener Condition
11.4 Fixed Fastener Condition
11.5 Tolerance Compensation for Projected Tolerance Zone – Fixed Fastener condition
11.7 Two Mating Coaxial/Coplanar Features at MMC
11.8 Tolerance Compensation for Projected Tolerance Zone Fixed Fastener Condition
11.10 Three Mating Coaxial/Coplanar Features at MMC
11.11 Position Tolerance calculation and Hole Pattern Analysis
11.12 Position Tolerance Verification
11.13 Position Coordinate to Location Conversion Chart
11.15 Workshop

12.1 Critical Feature Drawing (Reduced Dimension Drawing)
12.2 General
12.3 Implementation Considerations Applicable documents, Overview
12.4 Design Drawing Requirements Digital Model and Database
12.5 Quality and inspection requirements Manufacturing
12.6 Change notice procedure

13.1 Definitions and Terminology (Glossary)

14.1 Symbol Comparison
14.2 Comparison of ASME and ISO Symbols (Geometric Characteristics)
14.3 Comparison of ASME and ISO Symbols (General)

Acknowledgments
The following documents have been used as reference material (cited and not cited).
ASME Y14.5.M-1994, Dimensioning and Tolerancing.
ANSI Y14.5M-1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing.
ANSI Y14.5M-1973, Dimensioniing and Tolerancing
ANSI Y14.5M-1966, Dimensioning and Tolerancing International Standards Institute, ISO/R1101-1969, & Associated Documents
ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits
ANSI B5.10-1981, Machine tapers – Self Holding and Steep Taper Series
ANSI/ASME B46.1-1985, Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay)
ANSI B89.3.1-1972, Measurement of Out-of-Roundness
ANSI B92.1-1970, Involute Splines and Inspection, Inch Version
ANSI B92.2M-1980, Metric Module, Involute Splines
ANSI/ASME B94.6-1984, Knurling
ANSI B94.11M-1979, Twist Drills
ANSI Y14.1-1980, Drawing Sheet Size and Format
ASME Y14.2M-1992, Line Conventions and Lettering
ASME Y14.5.1M-1994, Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles.
ANSI Y14.6.2-1981, Screw Thread Representation (Metric Supplement)
ANSI Y14.7.1-1971, Gear Drawing Standards – Part 1: For Spur, Helical, Double Helical, and Rack
ANSI Y14.7.2-1978, Gear and Spline Drawing Standard – Part 2: Bevel and Hypoid Gears
ASME Y14.8M-1989, Castings and Forgings
ANSI Y14.36-1978, Surface Texture Symbols
ANSI/IEEE 268-1992, Metric Practice
ANSI/ASME B1.2-1983, Gages and Gaging for Unified Inch Screw Threads
ANSI B4.4M-1981 (R1987), Inspection of Workpieces
ASME Y1.1-1989, Abbreviations
ASME Y14.3M-1994, Multiview and Sectional View Drawings
Engineers Edge 2000 - 2007, Solutions by Design, Kelly Bramble,
Design for Manufacturing 2006 - 2007, Kelly Bramble

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Open: Geometric Boundaries, Interpretation and Application of GD&T per. ASME Y14.5M-1994