Humidity Ratio of Air 
Humidity ratio W is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air, Specific humidity γ is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass of the moist air sample: 

Thin Double Convex Lens Optical Equations 
Derivation formulas for lens essentially traces an arbitrary ray geometrically and mathematically from an object point through the two surfaces of a thin lens to the corresponding image point. 

Refraction for Water at Various Temperatures 
Table of index of refraction of liquid water at atmospheric pressure, relative to a vacuum, at several temperatures and wavelengths. It is generated from the formulation in Reference 1, which covers a wide range of temperature, pressure, and wavelength. 

Thrown Javelin Flight Dynamics Physics Graphical Simulator 
This model simulates the throw of a javelin with no spin and no wind in a vertical plane. This is a simplified situation to be able to analyze the pure dynamics of a javelin throw. The user can change several initial conditions including velocity, angle of the javelin (theta), angle of the velocity vector (phi), angle of attack (phi), and angular velocity (omega). 

Roller Coaster Physics Graphical Simulator 
This simulation simulates motion along a constrained path, such as what a roller coaster would take (assuming it has safety wheels to keep it on the track in “upsidedown” situations, of course). The simulation offers a chance to explore a number of concepts associated with roller coaster physics, including conservation of energy, reaction forces, motion in a vertical plane and friction. 

Air Density Equation 
Physical properties of air can be represented by the real gas equation, which is the modified version of ideal gas equation. 

Viscosity of Air, Dynamic and Kinematic 
The viscosity of air depends mostly on the temperature. Specific Heat of Air, Density of Air, Specific Heat of Air, Thermal Conductivity of Air, Thermal Diffusivity of Air, Dynamic Viscosity of Air, Kinematic Viscosity of Air, Prandtl Number Air 

