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Fluids Applications
 Aerodynamics Airfoil Theory Equations
 Air Leakage Rates for Typical Home Components
 Air Flow Drag and Drag Coefficient Equations and Calculator
 Air Density Equation  Physical properties of air can be represented by the real gas equation, which is the modified version of ideal gas equation.
 Aerodynamic Drag Equation and Calculator Aerodynamic Drag is the opposing fluid drag force that acts on any moving solid body
 Appliance Natural Gas Pipe Flow Rate Capacities for up to 200 ft of pipe based on a specific gravity of 0.60.
 Applied Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
 Buoyant Force in Liquids Animation and Calculator
 Churchill Friction Factor Equation and Calculator
 Colebrook Friction Loss Formula for Round Ducts

 Convert Rectangular or Square Ducts to Round Sizes, Formula and Calculator
 Pressurized Gas Blowout Time Pipeline Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
Mass Flow Rate for Gas Pipeline Blowdown through Hole or Orifice Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
 Centrifugal Pump Requirements Spreadsheet Calculator
Requires a Premium Membership to download
 Cup Anemometer Wind Measurement Equation and Calculator
 Thickwalled Cylinders of Ductile Material, Closed Ends Clavarino's Formula and Calculator
 Compressibility factor for air Z
 Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
 Convergent Nozzle Flow Velocity and Area Equation and Calculator
 ConvergentDivergent Nozzle Flow Velocity and Area Equation and Calculator
 Control Valve Sizing Liquid, Mass Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
 Control Valve Sizing Steam or Vapor Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
 Control Valve Sizing Gas Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
 Control Valve 90 Deg Flow to Relative Travel Table Spreadsheet Calculator
 Flow Through a Sluice Gate Formula and Calculator
 Flow over Channel Rise Hump Formula
 Fluid Flow Discharge Time under Falling Head Formula and Calculator
 Pipe Sizes for Fuel Oil Table Oil Suction The following are the recommended Nominal Size for Fuel Oil Suction line from the storage tank to the supply pump.
 Gas Compressibility Factor (Gas Deviation Factor)

 Draining Time for Vertical Tank Formulas and Calculator

 Duct Design Air Flow Velocities  Typical Duct sizes to achieve air flow requirements typical
 Engineering Applications Of Fluid Mechanics
Requires an active Premium Membership with Engineers Edge
 Flash Point of Flammable Gases, Vapors and Solvents Flash Point of Liquids
 Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The flow of ideal nonviscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century.
 Fritzsche Formula for Pressure Change at Standard Conditions Equation and Calculator

 IEC Aerodynamic Noise in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
 IEC Aerodynamic Noise Volumetric in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
 IEC Hydrodynamic Noise Mass in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
 Transmission Gas Line Isothermal Flow Equations and Calculator  The steadystate, isothermal flow behavior of gas in pipelines is defined by a general energy equation of the form:
 Harris Formula for Pressure Change at Standard Conditions Equation and Calculator
 Head Changes Caused by Pipe Size Enlargement Formula and Calculator
 Head Changes Caused by Pipe Size Sudden Reduction Formula and Calculator
 Hydraulic Turbine Actual Power Formula and Calculator
 Hydraulics Field Manual and Training  173 pages, free membership required
 Hydrostatic Pressure Force of a Fluid On Vessel Planes Equations The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only  i.e. without consideration of pressure p_{0}.
 Hydrostatic Discharge of Liquid From Vessel Bottom Equations and Calculator
 ImpulseMomentum Principle For Fluids Formula The ImpulseMomentum Principle is derived from Newton's 2nd law in vector form
 Natural Gas Pipe Flow Rate Requirement Formulas and Calculator
 Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio Formula and Calculator
 Magnus Effect Calculator and Formula for Ball The Magnus effect is the observed effect in which a spinning ball curves away from its principal flight path.
 Morison Equation
 Vessel With Pressure Applied to Liquid Level Equations and Calculator
 Irrotional Flow of Frictionless Fluids, Mostly of Invariable Density Premium Membership Required to view Document/Book
 Liquid Pressure Drop in Pipe and Pipe Fittings Spreadsheet Calculator
 Pipe Enlargement and Reduction Head, Heat and Minor Losses Formula
 PitotStatic Tube Velocity of Fluid Flow Measurement Calculator and Equation
 Orifice Submerged in Liquid Discharge Rate Calculator and Equation
 Properties of Fluids A fluid is any substance which flows because its particles are not rigidly attached to one another.
 Buoyancy Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
 Compressibility Compressibility is the measure of the change in volume a substance undergoes when a pressure is exerted on the substance.
 Control Valve P1 and P2 vs Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
 Fluids Discharge Measurement Structures and Systems, Basic Principles of Fluid Flow as Applied to Measuring Systems
 Flow of Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator
 Flow of Compressed Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator

 Flow Rate of Steam in Schedule 40 Pipe Tables
 Fluids and Hydraulics Engineering and Design Handbook Premium Membership Required
 Pipe Support Hanger Spacing and Pipe Wall Thickness Table 1.0 suggests minimum pipe hanger spacing for use unless exceeded by the local authority having jurisdiction or engineering calculations.
 Suggested Maximum Spacing Between Hanger Supports for PVC and CPVC Support spacings for PVC and CPVC pipe systems are influenced by operating temperatures. The tables below recommends horizontal spacing based on pipe size, schedule, material (PVC or industrial grade CPVC), and operating temperature.
 Capacities of ASTM A36 Steel Threaded Rods used for Pipe Support Hangers Based on allowable stress of 12,000 psi reduced by 25% using root area in accordance with ASME Standard B31.1 and MSS Standard SP58.
 Pump Sizing Design Calculations Excel Spreadsheet Calculator Premium Membership Required
 Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Review and Equations
 Head Loss at Pipe Entrance Equations and Calculator using the head loss coefficient and head loss of a fluid at a smooth bellmouth pipe entrance.
 Head Loss at Pipe Abrupt Exit Equations and Calculator of a fluid.
 Head loss and head loss coefficient equation and calculator of a fluid in across a screen (circular metal wire mesh) inside a pipe.
 Heat Loss or Gain From Pipe Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
 Horsepower Required to Compress Air, SingleStage Compression
 Horsepower Required to Compress Air, TwoStage Compression
 Horsepower Required to Compress Air, Threestage Compression
 Hydraulic Ram Pump for Pumping Water, Operation and Design Premium Membership Required
 Liquid DiffusivityTransfer of liquid water through porous materials may be characterized as a diffusionlike process
 Maximum Storm Drain Pipe Flow Rate per. International Plumbing Code (IPC 2018) Table 1106.2
 Pressure Drop and Flow Rate Calculations based on the Karman Method Excel Calculator Spreadsheet
 Velocity of Water Due To Head in Feet Table
 General Ventilation Rates Table Listed below are general ventilation rates for some common applications. Where more than one method is shown use the method that results in the higher airflow rate.
 Head coefficient and head loss across angled louvers inside a pipe equation and calculator.
 Horsepower Required to Compress Air Adiabatically and Isothermally
 Nozzle, Venturi and Orifice Flowmeter Formula and Calculator Flow in a pipeline can be measured by a venturi meter, flow nozzle, or orifice plate.
 SAE J300 Motor Oil Grades Engine Viscosity Classification and Properties
 Poiseuille's Law Formula and Calculator The relationship between pressure and continuous laminar flow of fluid in a rigid tube is described by Poiseuille's law, which states that the flow rate of a fluid, Q, is directly proportional to the pressure difference, along the length of the tube and the fourth power of the radius of the tube, and inversely proportional to the tube length, and fluid viscosity.
 Pascal's Law Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluidpressure
 Petroff's Hydrodynamic Lubrication Formula and Calculator
 Pump Power Requirements Spreadsheet Calculator
Requires a Premium Membership to download
 Pump Motor Size Calculator Spreadsheet, Requires an active Premium Membership
 Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends
 Pressure Distribution of a Fluid within a Vessel Equations and Calculator
 Control Volume Control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes.
 Low Pressure Flow Oliphant and Spitzglass Formula and Calculator Gas gathering often involves operating pressures below 100 psi. Some systems flow under vacuum conditions.
 ThinWalled Cylinders of Cast Iron With Internal Pressure Formula and Calculator
 Volumetric Flow Rate volumetric flow rate (V ) of a system is a measure of the volume of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time.
 Velocity of Escaping Compressed Air Equation and Calculator
 Mass Flow Rate Mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time
 Conservation of Mass Mass flow rates into a control volume are equal to all mass flow rates out of the control volume plus the rate of change of mass within the control volume.
 Rainfall Runoff Rate On Minor Size Land Formulas and Calculator
 Siphon Flow and Discharge Rates Tables and Charts
 Siphon Flow Rate from Small Pipes Equation and Calculator
 Standard Atmospheric Data for Altitude and Temperature The standard atmosphere gives a standard of reference for estimating properties at various altitudes.
 SteadyState Flow Steadystate flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at any single point in the system do not change over time.
 Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure Formula and Calculator per. ASME B31.5
 SwameeJain Friction Factor Equation and Calculator This is another explicit equation for calculating the friction factor typically used in the DarcyWeisbach.
 Surface Tension of Water, Salt and Fresh Equations and Review
 Temperature and Pressure Data for Refrigerants

 Time to Freeze Outdoor / Indoor Piping Formulas and Calculator ASHRAE
 Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
 Venturi Flow Equation and Calculator
 Gas Compressibility Factor Spreadsheet Calculator
 Flow Induced Vibration of Thermowells ISA
 Storm Drain Pipe Sizing Formula and Calculator
 Thermowell Vibration Fluids Engineering Systems Excel Calculator Spreadsheet These calculations are performed according to the paper "Power Test Code Thermometer Wells" by J. W. Murdock
 ThermoKinetics Thermowell Calculation Program Excel Calculator Spreadsheet
 Babcock Steam Flow Rate Formula and CalculatorAn empirical equation for steam flow is the Babcock formula.
 Unwin Gas Change of Pressure and Calculator and Formulas The Unwin formula has been successfully used in steam piping calculations for many years.
 Water Vapor Density atmosphere Equation  Water vapor in the atmosphere obeys the ideal gas law,
 Vapor Pressure Spreadsheet Calculator
 Viscous Torque and Power on Rotating Shafts Equations and Calculator
 Water Vapor Permeability Diffusive transfer of water vapor through porous materials is often described by a modified form of Fick’s law
 Properties of Water at Atmospheric Pressure Given in Metric SI Units
 Weir Flow Rectangular Open Channel Water Flow Calculator and Formula
 Wet Bulb Temperature Equation
 Wind Force Scales: Beaufort Wind Scale, SaffirSimpson Wind Scale, Fujita Wind Scale
 Wind Mill Powered Piston Pumps Design Equation and Calculator
 Selecting the Right Fan or Blower for Your Application Sizing of fans and blowers is similar in process to that of pumps, where graphs are commonly used. The performance graph is usually a constantspeed plot with capacity on the X axis and a variety of performance factors on the Y axis.
Bernoulli's Equation
TwoPhase Fluid Flow
 TwoPhase Fluid Flow Twophase flow occurs in a system containing gas and liquid with a meniscus separating the two phases
 Flow Instability Unstable flow can occur in the form of flow oscillations or flow reversals.
 Pipe Whip If a pipe were to rupture, the reaction force created by the high velocity fluid jet could cause the piping to displace and cause extensive damage
 Water Hammer Water hammer is a liquid shock wave resulting from the sudden starting or stopping of flow.
 Pressure spike Pressure spike is the resulting rapid rise in pressure above static pressure caused by water hammer.
 Steam Hammer Steam hammer is a power hammer driven by steam.
 Operational Considerations Practical Application Water and steam hammer are not uncommon occurrences in industrial plants.
Centrifugal Pumps
Fluids and Flow Calculators
Pumps, Components, and Technology
Piping Hardware Design Data
 Allowable Stresses for Pipe and Tube B36.10M  Steel pipe is manufactured by several processes. Seamless pipe (Type S), made by piercing or extruding, has no longitudinal seam. >
 API IntegralJoint tubing Recommended Torque Table API IJ integraljoint tubing is available in OD sizes of 1.315 to 2.063 in.
 API NUE Tubing Recommended Torque Table Recommended Torque Table for API NUE Tubing.
 API Tubing Engineering Table Chart API Tubing Engineering Table Chart
 API Tubing Grade & Specifications The following guidelines apply to the use of API tubing grades.
 API Casing 4.500  5.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table Specification 5C3 of the American Petroleum Institute standardizes 14 casing sizes from 4.5 inches (11.43 cm) to 20 inches (50.80 cm) outside diameter
 API Casing 5.000  5.500 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.00  5.50.
 API Casing 5.500  6.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.50  6.625.
 API Casing 6.625  7.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 6.625  7.000 Dia.
 API Casing 7.000  7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.000  7.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 7.625  8.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625  8.625 Dia. Table
 API Casing 9.625  10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 9.625  10.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 10.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 10.750  11.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 10.750  11.750 Dia. Table
 API Casing 11.750  13.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 11.750  13.375 Dia. Table
 API Casing 13.500  18.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 13.500  18.375 Dia. Table
 Air Pressure Loss per Foot in Steel Pipe Table Estimated pressure drop at the given CFM of free air flow for steel pipe.
 Barlow's Formula, Calculator and MAOP Design Factors Barlow's formula is used to verify that pipe used for gathering, transmission, and distribution lines can safely withstand operating pressures.
 Chézy and Manning's Equation Manning's equation, which is based on Chezy's equation, is method to calculate the free surface flow within a channel.
 Copper Tubing Size Chart ASTM B88 Dimensions and Physical Characteristics of Copper Tube: TYPE K
 Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Size and Physical Characteristics
 Copper Tube Size Chart Medical Gas, K and L Physical Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819.
 Design for Pipe and Tube Forming Premium Membership Required
 Design for Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Welding
 Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Equation
 HazenWilliams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Calculator Equation HazenWilliams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Equations and Calculator
 HazenWilliams Coefficients Table Typical C factors used in the Hazen Williams equation
 Isentropic Flow Relationships
 Steel Pipe Flow Friction Loss for sizes 10" to 12 " inch diameter
 Friction Losses in Steel Pipes size 0.5 to 1.25 inch diameter
 Friction Loss in Steel Pipe 1.5" to 3" inch diameter
 Steel Pipe Flow Loss Friction for sizes 4 " to 8 " inch diameter
 Friction Losses to Water Flow in Copper Pipes Size 0.5 to 1.00 inch diameter
 Friction Flow Losses in Copper Tubing of Water in Sizes 1.25 to 1.5 inch diameter
 Friction Flow Losses in Copper Tubing of Water in Sizes 2 to 3 inch diameter
 Internal Dryseal Pipe Thread Tap Drill Sizes Recommendations Dryseal pipe threads are designated by specifying in sequence nominal size, thread series symbol, and class:
 Kinematics Viscosity Equation Application kinematics viscosity is the ratio of the viscosity to the density.
 Kinematics Viscosity Table Chart Average Kinematics Viscosity for selected liquid fluids.
 L Pipe Bend Guided Cantilever Beam Equation and Calculator The guided cantilever beam method of evaluating L bends can be used to design L bends, Z bends, pipe loops, branch takeoff connections, and some more complicated piping configurations.
 Lames Equation Thickwalled Cylinders of Brittle Material, Ends Open or Closed Formula and Calculator
 Torque Table for API UEU Tubing Recommended Torque for UEU Tubing
 Flow Losses for Valves and Fittings in Equivalent Feet if Pipe.
 Fluid Energy Loss in Fittings and Valves Formula, Calculator and Tables There are two standard ways to calculate the energy lost in fittings and valves: the resistance coefficient method, and the equivalent length method. The method chosen will depend on what information is provided with the fitting to be analyzed.
 Pipe Thermal Expansion U Shape Loop Equations and Calculator for Pipe Thermal expansion will occur between all fixed points in a piping system. If the system has the same covering height, natural fixed points will occur in the center of a line section between two expansion elbows.
 Fluid Flow Open Channel Calculator Chezy and Manning's equation to determine the wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, flow area, Chezy coefficient and flow velocity
 Ovality (Roundness) of a Tube or Pipe Formulas and Calculator
 Pitot Tube Velocity of Fluid Flow Measurement Pitot tube stagnation pressure equation for an incompressible fluid
 Pipe Diameter Based on & Friction Factor Calculator Calculator will determine pipe diameter required based on Head Loss, hL, Frictional Pressure Drop, DPf, for given flow rate, Q, pipe diameter, D, pipe length, L, pipe roughness, e, and fluid properties, r & m.
 Pipe Flow Rate Based on & Friction Factor Calculator Calculator will determine pipe diameter required based on Head Loss, hL, Frictional Pressure Drop, DPf, for given flow rate, Q, pipe diameter, D, pipe length, L, pipe roughness, e, and fluid properties, r & m.
 Pipe Friction Head Loss, Friction Pressure, and Frictional Pressure Equations and Calculator Pipe Friction Head Loss, Friction Pressure, and Frictional Pressure Equations and Calculator
 Manning's Roughness Coefficient Gauckley Chezy Manning coefficient, often denoted as n , is an empirically derived coefficient
 Nozzle, Water Flow Table Units in Cubic Feet per Second
 Pex (CrossLinked Polyethylene) Specifications PEX is a polymeric material formed by the chemical joining of individual polyethylene molecules in a process called crosslinking. Crosslinking alters the performance of the original polyethylene polymer improving several key properties.
 Pipe Friction Calculations Within Pipe For Fluid Flow Pipe Friction drives the pipe size requirements within a fluid flow system and is dependant on the piping system design requirements.

 HazenWilliams Method for Pipe Friction and Pressure Drop HazenWilliams formula:
 Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves.
 Pipe Roughness Coefficients Roughness Coefficients of Specific roughness, HazenWilliams Coefficient and Manning Factor.
 Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 40 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Schedule 80 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions PVC, CPVC and other Schedule 40 Plastic Pipe.
 Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
 Stainless Steel Pipe per. ASTM A312 and ANSI B36.19
 Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 5 to 30
 Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 40S to XS / XH
 Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 80 to XXS / XXH
 Steel Pipe Pressure Ratings

 Pressure  Temperature Ratings for Pipe Flanges, and Flanged Fittings from ANSI B16.51981
 Tube Bending Manufacturing Guide Premium membership required
 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Applications Material characteristics for plastic PVC, CPVC
 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 1 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 2 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
 Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fittings Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fitting. Each pipeline fitting within the system
 Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe
 Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe
 Pressure Vessel and Piping Weld Joint Reduction Factor  Weld Joint Corrosion Reduction Factor
 Working Internal Pressure for Copper Tube Solder or Brazing Joints Based on ASME Standard B31.9
 Allowable Working Pressures for Carbon Steel Piping
 Allowable Working Pressures for Copper Tubing for copper tubing type ACR used in refrigerant piping systems.
Head Loss
 Head Loss Head loss is the reduction in the total head or pressure of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system.
 Friction Factor Friction factor has been determined to depend on the Reynolds number for the flow and the degree of roughness of the pipes
 Darcy's Equation Darcy's Equation Fluids Flow Equation  also called Darcy Weisbach equation.
 Minor Losses Pressure losses that occur in pipelines due to bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called minor losses.
 Equivalent Piping Length Equivalent Piping Length Head Loss Equation Fluids
Natural Circulation
Fluids Engineering Data
Vacuum Systems and Design
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
 Airfoil AeroDynamics Characteristics Calculator Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity
 Flow Regimes Two flow regimes are laminar flow and turbulent flow
 Laminar Flow Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
 Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow Poseuille Law Equation
 Flow Velocity Profiles Not all fluid particles travel at the same velocity within a pipe.
 Average (Bulk) Velocity Ia single average velocity to represent the velocity of all fluid at that point in the pipe.
 Viscosity Viscosity is a fluid property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force.
 Ideal Fluid ideal fluid is one that is incompressible and has no viscosity.
 Reynolds Number Reynolds number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is dimensionless number of the physical characteristics of the flow.
Applications Calculators

