The following is links to resources on the topic of engineering fluids design, engineering and related.
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- Aerodynamics Airfoil Theory Equations
- Air Flow Drag and Drag Coefficient Equations and Calculator
- Air Density Equation - Physical properties of air can be represented by the real gas equation, which is the modified version of ideal gas equation.
- Aerodynamic Drag Equation and Calculator Aerodynamic Drag is the opposing fluid drag force that acts on any moving solid body
- Applied Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual
- Buoyant Force in Liquids Animation and Calculator
- Pressurized Gas Blowout Time Pipeline Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
Mass Flow Rate for Gas Pipeline Blowdown through Hole or Orifice Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
- Centrifugal Pump Requirements Spreadsheet Calculator
Requires a Premium Membership to download
- Thick-walled Cylinders of Ductile Material, Closed Ends Clavarino's Formula and Calculator
- Compressibility factor for air Z
- Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
- Convergent Nozzle Flow Velocity and Area Equation and Calculator
- Convergent-Divergent Nozzle Flow Velocity and Area Equation and Calculator
- Control Valve Sizing Liquid, Mass Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve Sizing Steam or Vapor Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve Sizing Gas Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve 90 Deg Flow to Relative Travel Table Spreadsheet Calculator
- Draining Time for Vertical Tank Formulas and Calculator
- Engineering Applications Of Fluid Mechanics
Requires an active Premium Membership with Engineers Edge
- Fluid Mechanics and Machinery The flow of ideal non-viscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were
developed during the last century.
- IEC Aerodynamic Noise in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- IEC Aerodynamic Noise Volumetric in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- IEC Hydrodynamic Noise Mass in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- Hydrostatic Pressure Force of a Fluid On Vessel Planes Equations The hydrostatic force of pressure F is that force which is exerted on the wall by the fluid only - i.e. without consideration of pressure p0.
- Hydrostatic Discharge of Liquid From Vessel Bottom Equations and Calculator
- Vessel With Pressure Applied to Liquid Level Equations and Calculator
- Irrotional Flow of Frictionless Fluids, Mostly of Invariable Density Premium Membership Required to view Document/Book
- Liquid Pressure Drop in Pipe and Pipe Fittings Spreadsheet Calculator
- Properties of Fluids A fluid is any substance which flows because its particles are not rigidly attached to one another.
- Buoyancy Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
- Compressibility Compressibility is the measure of the change in volume a substance undergoes when a pressure is exerted on the substance.
- Control Valve P1 and P2 vs Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Fluids Discharge Measurement Structures and Systems,
Basic Principles of Fluid Flow as Applied to Measuring Systems
- Flow of Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator
- Flow of Compressed Air in Pipes Equation and Calculator
- Fluids and Hydraulics Engineering and Design Handbook Premium Membership Required
- Pump Sizing Design Calculations Excel Spreadsheet Calculator Premium Membership Required
- Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Review and Equations
- Head Loss at Pipe Entrance Equations and Calculator using the head loss coefficient and head loss of a fluid at a smooth bellmouth pipe entrance.
- Head Loss at Pipe Abrupt Exit Equations and Calculator of a fluid.
- Head loss and head loss coefficient equation and calculator of a fluid in across a screen (circular metal wire mesh) inside a pipe.
- Heat Loss or Gain From Pipe Excel Spreadsheet Calculator
- Horsepower Required to Compress Air, Single-Stage Compression
- Horsepower Required to Compress Air, Two-Stage Compression
- Horsepower Required to Compress Air, Three-stage Compression
- Hydraulic Ram Pump for Pumping Water, Operation and Design Premium Membership Required
- Pressure Drop and Flow Rate Calculations based on the Karman Method Excel Calculator Spreadsheet
- Velocity of Water Due To Head in Feet Table
- General Ventilation Rates Table Listed below are general ventilation rates for some common applications. Where more than one method is shown use the method that results in the higher airflow rate.
- Head coefficient and head loss across angled louvers inside a pipe equation and calculator.
- Horsepower Required to Compress Air Adiabatically and Isothermally
- Poiseuille's Law Formula and Calculator The relationship between pressure and continuous laminar flow of fluid in a rigid tube is described by Poiseuille's law, which states that the flow rate of a fluid, Q, is directly proportional to the pressure difference, along the length of the tube and the fourth power of the radius of the tube, and inversely proportional to the tube length, and fluid viscosity.
- Pascal's Law Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure
- Pump Power Requirements Spreadsheet Calculator
Requires a Premium Membership to download
- Pump Motor Size Calculator Spreadsheet, Requires an active Premium Membership
- Pressure Losses for Fluid Flow in 90° Pipe Bends
- Pressure Distribution of a Fluid within a Vessel Equations and Calculator
- Control Volume Control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes.
- Thin-Walled Cylinders of Cast Iron With Internal Pressure Formula and Calculator
- Volumetric Flow Rate volumetric flow rate (V ) of a system is a measure of the volume of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time.
- Velocity of Escaping Compressed Air Equation and Calculator
- Mass Flow Rate Mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time
- Conservation of Mass Mass flow rates into a control volume are equal to all mass flow rates out of the control volume plus the rate of change of mass within the control volume.
- Siphon Flow and Discharge Rates Tables and Charts
- Siphon Flow Rate from Small Pipes Equation and Calculator
- Steady-State Flow Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at any single point in the system do not change over time.
- Surface Tension of Water, Salt and Fresh Equations and Review
- Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
- Venturi Flow Equation and Calculator
- Gas Compressibility Factor Spreadsheet Calculator
- Flow Induced Vibration of Thermowells ISA
- Thermowell Vibration Fluids Engineering Systems Excel Calculator Spreadsheet These calculations are performed according to the paper "Power Test Code Thermometer Wells" by J. W. Murdock
- Thermo-Kinetics Thermowell Calculation Program Excel Calculator Spreadsheet
- Water Vapor Density atmosphere Equation - Water vapor in the atmosphere obeys the ideal gas law,
- Vapor Pressure Spreadsheet Calculator
- Viscous Torque and Power on Rotating Shafts Equations and Calculator
- Wet Bulb Temperature Equation
- Wind Force Scales: Beaufort Wind Scale, Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale, Fujita Wind Scale
- Selecting the Right Fan or Blower for Your Application Sizing of fans and blowers is similar in process to that of pumps, where graphs are commonly used. The performance graph is usually a constant-speed plot with capacity on the X axis and a variety of performance factors on the Y axis.
Two-Phase Fluid Flow
Fluids and Flow Calculators
- Two-Phase Fluid Flow Two-phase flow occurs in a system containing gas and liquid with a meniscus separating the two phases
- Flow Instability Unstable flow can occur in the form of flow oscillations or flow reversals.
- Pipe Whip If a pipe were to rupture, the reaction force created by the high velocity fluid jet could cause the piping to displace and cause extensive damage
- Water Hammer Water hammer is a liquid shock wave resulting from the sudden starting or stopping of flow.
- Pressure spike Pressure spike is the resulting rapid rise in pressure above static pressure caused by water hammer.
- Steam Hammer Steam hammer is a power hammer driven by steam.
- Operational Considerations Practical Application Water and steam hammer are not uncommon occurrences in industrial plants.
Pumps, Components, and Technology
Piping Hardware Design Data
- API Integral-Joint tubing Recommended Torque Table API IJ integral-joint tubing is available in OD sizes of 1.315 to 2.063 in.
- API NUE Tubing Recommended Torque Table Recommended Torque Table for API NUE Tubing.
- API Tubing Engineering Table Chart API Tubing Engineering Table Chart
- API Tubing Grade & Specifications The following guidelines apply to the use of API tubing grades.
- API Casing 4.500 - 5.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table Specification 5C3 of the American Petroleum Institute standardizes 14 casing sizes from 4.5 inches (11.43 cm) to 20 inches (50.80 cm) outside diameter
- API Casing 5.000 - 5.500 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.00 - 5.50.
- API Casing 5.500 - 6.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 5.50 - 6.625.
- API Casing 6.625 - 7.000 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing Data Tables sizes 6.625 - 7.000 Dia.
- API Casing 7.000 - 7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.000 - 7.625 Dia. Table
- API Casing 7.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625 Dia. Table
- API Casing 7.625 - 8.625 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 7.625 - 8.625 Dia. Table
- API Casing 9.625 - 10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 9.625 - 10.750 Dia. Table
- API Casing 10.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 10.750 Dia. Table
- API Casing 10.750 - 11.750 Dia. Engineering Data Table PI Casing 10.750 - 11.750 Dia. Table
- API Casing 11.750 - 13.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 11.750 - 13.375 Dia. Table
- API Casing 13.500 - 18.375 Dia. Engineering Data Table API Casing 13.500 - 18.375 Dia. Table
- Air Pressure Loss per Foot in Steel Pipe Table Estimated pressure drop at the given CFM of free air flow for steel pipe.
- Barlow's Formula, Calculator and MAOP Design Factors Barlow's formula is used to verify that pipe used for gathering, transmission, and distribution lines can safely withstand operating pressures.
- Chézy and Manning's Equation Manning's equation, which is based on Chezy's equation, is method to calculate the free surface flow within a channel.
- Copper Tubing Size Chart ASTM B88 Dimensions and Physical Characteristics of Copper Tube: TYPE K
- Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart- Size and Physical Characteristics
- Copper Tube Size Chart Medical Gas, K and L Physical Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819.
- Design for Pipe and Tube Forming Premium Membership Required
- Design for Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube Welding
- Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Discharge of Air Through An Orifice Equation
- Hazen-Williams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Calculator Equation Hazen-Williams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Equations and Calculator
- Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table Typical C factors used in the Hazen Williams equation
- Internal Dryseal Pipe Thread Tap Drill Sizes Recommendations Dryseal pipe threads are designated by specifying in sequence nominal size, thread series symbol, and class:
- Kinematics Viscosity Equation Application kinematics viscosity is the ratio of the viscosity to the density.
- Kinematics Viscosity Table Chart Average Kinematics Viscosity for selected liquid fluids.
- Lames Equation Thick-walled Cylinders of Brittle Material, Ends Open or Closed Formula and Calculator
- Torque Table for API UEU Tubing Recommended Torque for UEU Tubing
- Flow Losses for Valves and Fittings in Equivalent Feet if Pipe.
- Fluid Energy Loss in Fittings and Valves Formula, Calculator and Tables There are two standard ways to calculate the energy lost in fittings and valves: the resistance coefficient method, and the equivalent length method. The method chosen will depend on what information is provided with the fitting to be analyzed.
- Pipe Thermal Expansion U Shape Loop Equations and Calculator for Pipe Thermal expansion will occur between all fixed points in a piping system. If the system has the same covering height, natural fixed points will occur in the center of a line section between two expansion elbows.
- Fluid Flow Open Channel Calculator Chezy and Manning's equation to determine the wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, flow area, Chezy coefficient and flow velocity
- Ovality (Roundness) of a Tube or Pipe Formulas and Calculator
- Pipe Diameter Based on & Friction Factor Calculator Calculator will determine pipe diameter required based on Head Loss, hL, Frictional Pressure Drop, DPf, for given flow rate, Q, pipe diameter, D, pipe length, L, pipe roughness, e, and fluid properties, r & m.
- Pipe Flow Rate Based on & Friction Factor Calculator Calculator will determine pipe diameter required based on Head Loss, hL, Frictional Pressure Drop, DPf, for given flow rate, Q, pipe diameter, D, pipe length, L, pipe roughness, e, and fluid properties, r & m.
- Pipe Friction Head Loss, Friction Pressure, and Frictional Pressure Equations and Calculator Pipe Friction Head Loss, Friction Pressure, and Frictional Pressure Equations and Calculator
- Manning's Roughness Coefficient Gauckley Chezy Manning coefficient, often denoted as n , is an empirically derived coefficient
- Nozzle, Water Flow Table Units in Cubic Feet per Second
- Pex (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) Specifications PEX is a polymeric material formed by the chemical joining of individual polyethylene molecules in a process called crosslinking. Crosslinking alters the performance of the original polyethylene polymer improving several key properties.
- Pipe Friction Calculations Within Pipe For Fluid Flow Pipe Friction drives the pipe size requirements within a fluid flow system and is dependant on the piping system design requirements.
- Hazen-Williams Method for Pipe Friction and Pressure Drop Hazen-Williams formula:
- Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves Estimated Pressure Drop for Thermoplastic Lined Fittings and Valves.
- Pipe Roughness Coefficients Roughness Coefficients of Specific roughness, Hazen-Williams Coefficient and Manning Factor.
- Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 40 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
- Schedule 80 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
- Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions PVC, CPVC and other Schedule 40 Plastic Pipe.
- Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
- Stainless Steel Pipe per. ASTM A312 and ANSI B36.19
- Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 5 to 30
- Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 40S to XS / XH
- Metric Pipe Sizes Dn "Diametre Nominel" per ISO vs NPS "Nominal Pipe Size" Equivalent for DN 6 to DN 2200, NPS Schedule 80 to XXS / XXH
- Steel Pipe Pressure Ratings
- Pressure - Temperature Ratings for Pipe Flanges, and Flanged Fittings from ANSI B16.5-1981
- Tube Bending Manufacturing Guide Premium membership required
- Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Applications Material characteristics for plastic PVC, CPVC
- Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 1 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
- Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table 2 Loss of Air Pressure Due To Pipe Friction Table
- Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fittings Loss of Pressure Through Screw Pipe Fitting. Each pipeline fitting within the system
- Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe
- Pressure Vessel and Piping Weld Joint Reduction Factor - Weld Joint Corrosion Reduction Factor
- Head Loss Head loss is the reduction in the total head or pressure of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system.
- Friction Factor Friction factor has been determined to depend on the Reynolds number for the flow and the degree of roughness of the pipes
- Darcy's Equation Darcy's Equation Fluids Flow Equation - also called Darcy Weisbach equation.
- Minor Losses Pressure losses that occur in pipelines due to bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called minor losses.
- Equivalent Piping Length Equivalent Piping Length Head Loss Equation Fluids
Fluids Engineering Data
Vacuum Systems and Design
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
- Airfoil AeroDynamics Characteristics Calculator Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity
- Flow Regimes Two flow regimes are laminar flow and turbulent flow
- Laminar Flow Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
- Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow Poseuille Law Equation
- Flow Velocity Profiles Not all fluid particles travel at the same velocity within a pipe.
- Average (Bulk) Velocity Ia single average velocity to represent the velocity of all fluid at that point in the pipe.
- Viscosity Viscosity is a fluid property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force.
- Ideal Fluid ideal fluid is one that is incompressible and has no viscosity.
- Reynolds Number Reynolds number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is dimensionless number of the physical characteristics of the flow.