Related Resources: Renewable Energy

Alternative Energy Systems in Building Design

Power Transmission Design and Engineering

Alternative Energy Systems in Building Design


This resource requires a Premium Membership

Open: Alternative Energy Systems in Building Design


In the coming decades, the alternative energy technology industries will undergo unprecedented growth and will represent a significant component of the U.S. gross national product. The replacement of conventional fossil fuel and nuclear fission energy resources by renewable-energy sources will mandate that industries, academia, and research institutions provide immediate technological solutions to curb global environ- mental pollution. To mitigate global environmental and atmospheric pollution and to accelerate technological growth, it is imperative that international academia keep up with industry by educating carrier professionals to meet these imminent challenges.

In the very near future, global economies will face enormous challenges that they will need to resolve, increasing the ever-growing need for ecologically friendly renewable- energy resources. Despite its status as the economic bastion and technological leader of the free world and the largest atmospheric polluter of our planet, the United States has in the past few decades totally neglected the economic promotion of key alternative energy technologies such as solar and wind energy power generation. Even though both these technologies were invented in the United States, the nation has fallen far behind all developing countries, including Japan, Germany, and, soon, China.


Introduction xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Disclaimer Note xix

Chapter 1
Global Warming: Climatic and Atmospheric Changes 1
Climate Change Factors 1 Variations within the Earth's Climate 1
Natural Factors Driving Climate Change 2
The Memory of Climate 6
Human Influences on Climate Change 6
The Transition of Various Forms of Sequestered Solar Energy Use and Their Effect on Societies 9
Industrial Sources of Atmospheric Pollution 12
The Little Ice Age 15

Chapter 2
Energy Systems 19
Conservation of Energy 19
The Concept of Energy in Various Scientific Fields 19

Chapter 3
Solar Power System Physics and Technologies 23
Brief History of the Photoelectric Phenomenon 23
Solar Cell Physics 26
Solar Cell Electronics 30
Solar Cell Manufacturing and Packaging Technologies 30
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 34
Multijunction PV Cells 40
Polymer Solar Cells 42
Concentrators 43
Solar Panel Arrays 44
Solar Power System Components 44
Crystalline, Amorphous, Thin-Film, and Sun-Tracker Technologies 51
Solar Power System Design 69
Storage Battery Technologies 77
Solar Power System Configurations 86
Ground-Mounted PV Module Installation and Support 97
Roof-Mounted Installations 98
Electrical Shock Hazard and Safety Considerations 700
Solar Tracking Systems 103
Field Safety Recommendations 106
Solar Power System Maintenance 107
Troubleshooting 108
Solar Power System Warning Signage 109
PV System Design Guidelines 110
Solar Power System Design Considerations 111
Solar Power Rebate Application Procedure 124
Solar Power System Deployment 726
Economics of Solar Power Systems 139
Special Note 755

Chapter 4
California Solar Initiative Program 157
CSI Fund Distribution 158
CSI Power-Generation Targets 758
Incentive Payment Structure 759
Expected Performance-Based Buydown (EPBB) 760
Performance-Based Incentive (PBI) 767
Host Customer 767
Solar Power Contractors and Equipment Sellers 762
PV System Sizing Requirements 763
Energy-Efficiency Audit 763
Warranty and Performance Permanency Requirements 764
Insurance 764
Grid Interconnection and Metering Requirements 765
Inspection 765
CSI Limitations 765
CSI Reservation Steps 766
Incentive Payments 768
Equipment Distributors 768
Special Funding for Affordable Housing Projects 769
Special Funding for Public and Charter Schools 769
Principal Types of Municipal Leases 769

Chapter 5 Energy Conservation Energy-Saving Measures 773
Power-Factor Correction 777
Electric Power Generation and Distribution 778
Computerized Lighting Control 780
California Title 24
Electric Energy Compliance 786
Demand-Side Energy Management and Control 795

Chapter 6 Passive Solar Heating Technologies 223
Passive Solar Water Heating 223
Concentrator Solar Technologies 233
Solar Cooling and Air-Conditioning 236
Direct Solar Power Generation 240
Innovations in Passive Solar Power Technology

Chapter 7
Fuel Cell Technology Fuel Cell Design 245
Fuel Cell Application 251
Fuel Cells as Alternatives to Internal
Combustion Fuels 259
Hydrogen Economy 260

Chapter 8
Wind Energy Technologies History of Wind Power 267
Wind Power Generation 268
Wind Power Management 268
Betz' Law of Fluid Dynamics 271
Structural Considerations 274
Basics of Wind Turbine Operation 276
Wind Turbine Energy Economics 279

Chapter 9
Ocean Energy Technologies Tidal Power 287
Tidal Physics: Effects of the Terrestrial Centrifugal Force 287
Tidal Power Generation 288
Current Tidal Generation Technologies 292
Marine-Current Turbine Technologies 300
Some Interesting Oceanic Technologies 303

Chapter 10
Hydroelectric and Micro-Hydro Turbine Power Hydroelectric Power Plants 307
Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Power 309
Hydroelectric Power Technology 312
Classification of Hydropower Energy Facilities 313
Hydroelectric Plant Equipment 313
Case Studies of Hydroelectric Power Plants 375
Micro-Hydropower Generation 323

Chapter 11
Geothermal Energy Thermal Power Extraction Potential 334
Geothermal Technologies 335
Geothermal Potential 337
Cost of Geothermal Energy and Economics 339
Geothermal Case Study in an Air-Conditioning Application 341
Ocean Thermal Energy 344

Chapter 12
Biofuel, Biogas, and Thermal Depolymerization Technologies History 345
Chemical Composition 346
Origins of Biomass 346
Biomass Energy Potential 347
Energy Value of Biomass 348
Benefits of Biomass Energy 348
Microturbine Generators 350
Landfill, Wastewater Treatment, and Plant Biogas Generators 353
Hot Water and Generators 356
Economic Benefits of Using Landfill Gas 357
Environmental Benefits of Using Landfill Gas 357
Case Study of Successful Application of Microgenerator Technology 357
Cal Poly Biogas Case Study 360
Biomass Energy 362
Biofuels and Thermal Depolymerization 362
Biomass Energy Implementation 365
Carbon Black 366
Gasification Process 367
Biopower 368
Bioproducts 369
Some Interesting Facts about Bioenergy 370
Biodiesel 371

Chapter 13
Fission- and Fusion-Type Nuclear Power Properties of Uranium 375
Nuclear Fission Power Plant 377
Construction of a Nuclear Power Plant 378
Subcriticality, Criticality, and Supercriticality 378
Advantages and Disadvantages of Fission Nuclear Reactors Effects of Nuclear Radiation 379
Radioactive Decay 380
Radiation Danger 381
Nuclear Radiation Accidents 381
Case Study: San Onofre 383
Canadian CANDU Reactor 384
Pebble-Bed Reactor 387
Hyperion Nuclear Power Reactor 389
Fusion Reactors 394
Fusion as a Future Energy Source 401
Future Fusion-Reactor Research and Development 403

Chapter 14
Air Pollution Abatement 405
Effects of Pollution on Human and Animal Life 406
Pollution-Abatement Equipment 407
Emerging Future Technologies: Bioreactors 415
Groundwater Replenishment System 415

Chapter 15
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Carbon Trading Economics Chemical and Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide 421
Carbon Dioxide Production 422
Industrial Production of Carbon Dioxide 423
Industrial Uses of Carbon Dioxide 423
Carbon Dioxide in Photosynthesis 423
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Ocean Waters and Aquatic Life Pesticides and Plastics 424
Carbon Dioxide in the Oil and Chemical Industries 425
Role of Carbon Dioxide in Human Physiology 425
Carbon Dioxide Use in the Production of Ammonia and Fertilizer 375 378 421 424 425 i
Carbon Credits 426
Economics of Global Warming 428
Disagreement and Criticisms of the Kyoto Protocol 430

Appendix A Unit Conversion and Design Reference Tables 433

Appendix B Photo Gallery 475

Appendix C Historical Time Line of Solar Energy 485

Appendix D Glossary of Renewable Energy Power Systems 493
Bibliography 503
Index 505