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Heat Treating Common Steels Temperature and Quenching Medium Chart

Heat Treating Common Steels Temperature and Quenching Medium Table - Quenching solutions act only through their ability to cool the steel. They have no beneficial chemical action on the quenched steel and in themselves impart no unusual properties.

Dec 6, 2021

Series and Parallel Spring Forces Calculator

Series and Parallel Spring Forces Calculator. When more than one spring is being used in a design, they are either in series, meaning one after another, or in parallel, meaning side by side, or a combination of both.

Nov 23, 2021

Internal Combustion Engine Flywheel To Drive Machine Formula and Calculator

The torque (T ) delivered by an internal combustion engine is a function of the rotation angle (θ). In fact, for a four-stroke engine, power is delivered during only one of the four 180◦ cycles. For the other three cycles, the inertia and thermodynamic processes of the system are slowing the engine down.

Nov 21, 2021

Flywheel Inertial Energy Formula and Calculator

Flywheels store and release the energy of rotation, called inertial energy. The primary purpose of a flywheel is to regulate the speed of a machine. It does this through the amount of inertia contained in the flywheel, specifically the mass moment of inertia.

Nov 18, 2021

Helical Spring Fatigue Loading and Factor of Safety Formulas and Calculator

Rarely are helical springs not subjected to fatigue loading. The number of cycles may only be in hundreds or thousands, but usually they must be designed for millions and millions of cycles such that an infinite life is desired.

Nov 16, 2021

Helical Compression Spring Critical Frequency Critical Frequency Formula and Calculator

Helical springs, such as those used in the valve trains of internal combustion engines, can fail if the frequency of loading coincides with the natural, or critical, frequency of the spring, called resonance.

Nov 12, 2021

Poiseuille Law Formula and Calculator

This equation is known as Poiseuille’s law, and this flow is called Hagen - Poiseuille the pressure drops and thus the required pumping power is proportional to the length of the pipe and the viscosity of the fluid, but it is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the radius (or diameter) of the pipe.

Nov 11, 2021

Interference Pressure Mechanical Tolerances Variability Equations and Calculator

Mechanical Tolerances and Fit Terminology: When the radial interference (δ) and interface radius (R) is known, the interface pressure (p) can be calculated using equations provided on Thick Wall Cylinder Press or Shrink Fits Equations and Calculator

Nov 10, 2021

Thick Wall Cylinder Press or Shrink Fits Equations and Calculator

If two thick-walled cylinders are assembled by either a hot/cold shrinking or a mechanical press-fit, a pressure is developed at the interface between the two cylinders.

Nov 9, 2021

Axial Stress Thick Wall Cylinder Equations and Calculator

If the pressure (pi) is confined at the ends, an axial (longitudinal) stress (σa) is also developed. It is assumed that the external pressure po is zero.

Nov 9, 2021

Thick Walled Cylinder Stress Pressure Vessel Equations and Calculator

Thick-walled cylinders have application in all sorts of machine elements and will be the basis for the presentation for shrink or press fits. Typically a cylinder is considered thick if the diameter is less than ten times the wall thickness.

Nov 8, 2021

Thin Walled Sphere Stress Equations and Calculator

Thin Walled Sphere Stress Pressure Vessel Equations and Calculator

Nov 7, 2021

Marin Endurance Limit Equations and Calculator

Marin Factors for Corrected Endurance Limit Fatigue The endurance limit (S'e) determined using Eq. 2 that is established from fatigue tests on a standard test specimen must be modified for factors that will usually be different for an actual machine element.

Nov 7, 2021

Counterbalancing Masses in Two or More Planes Formulas and Calculator

Unbalanced masses or weights rotating about a common axis in two separate planes of rotation form a couple, which must be counterbalanced by masses or weights, also located in two separate planes

Nov 3, 2021

Critical Speed Ball Screw and Lead Screws Formulas and Calculator

The critical speed is the lowest rational speed that a shaft is in resonance.

Oct 29, 2021

Stresses in Universal Knuckle Joint Formulas and Calculator

Stresses in Universal Knuckle Joint. Universal joints are a mechanical form of coupling, originally known as a Cardan or Hooke's coupling, is used for connecting two shafts the axes of which are not in line with each other, but which merely intersect at a point. There are many different designs of universal joints or couplings, which are based on the principle embodied in the original design.

Oct 28, 2021

Moments and Reactions for Rectangular Plates using Finite Difference Method

Moments and Reactions for Rectangular Plates using the Finite Difference Method. This book of monograph presents a series of tables containing computed data for use in the design of components of structures which can be idealized as rectangular plates or slabs. Typical examples are wall and footing panels of counterfort retaining walls.

Oct 24, 2021

Pipe Flow Gradual Size Enlargement Formula and Calculator

Gradual enlargement causes less energy loss than sudden enlargement because it causes less turbulence. Diffusers are gradual enlargement device. Velocity decreases while pressure increases. Gradual enlargements generally have a conical section that joins two different pipe diameters.

Oct 20, 2021

Fluid Energy Loss in Fittings and Valves Formula, Calculator and Tables

Fluid Energy Loss in Fittings and Valves Formula, Calculator and Tables. There are two standard ways to calculate the energy lost in fittings and valves: the resistance coefficient method, and the equivalent length method. The method chosen will depend on what information is provided with the fitting to be analyzed

Oct 18, 2021

Pex (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) Specifications

PEX is a polymeric material formed by the chemical joining of individual polyethylene molecules in a process called crosslinking. Crosslinking alters the performance of the original polyethylene polymer improving several key properties.

Oct 18, 2021

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