Related Resources: Engineering Materials

Composites Materials Handbook, Volume 1

Manufacturing Engineering and Design
Engineering Materials

Composites Materials Handbook, Volume 1
Polymer Matrix Composites
Design guidelines for characterization of structural materials

Premium Membership Required to view Document/Book

Related:

Open:

Composites Materials Handbook, Volume 1

Introduction:

It is generally understood that standardized, statistically-based, material property data are essential to an efficient engineering development process; such data are needed by material suppliers, engineering users, and system end-users alike. Since the inherent properties of materials are independent of specific applications, data development methodologies and material property data are applicable to a wide variety of industries; they also form much of the technical basis for establishment of statistically-based design values acceptable to procuring or certifying agencies.

While the source and context for much of the handbook has historically come from experience with aerospace flight-critical structures, all transportation industries (aerospace, ground, rail, and marine), whether commercial or military, as well as other applications including general industrial products, will find the handbook useful. Incorporation of additional information related to broader applications is ongoing.

TOC

Foreword.ii
Summary of Changes .. xvii
CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.2 PURPOSE 1
1.3 SCOPE.. 2
1.3.1 Strength properties and allowables data . 3
1.3.2 Volume 1: Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials 3
1.3.3 Volume 2: Material Properties . 3
1.3.4 Volume 3: Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis Guidelines 4
1.4 USE OF THE DOCUMENT AND LIMITATIONS 4
1.4.1 Roadmaps for use of Volumes 1 - 3 .. 4
1.4.2 Source of information.. 16
1.4.3 Use of data and guidelines in applications .. 16
1.4.4 Strength properties and allowables terminology 16
1.4.5 Use of references . 16
1.4.6 Use of tradenames and product names 17
1.4.7 Toxicity, health hazards, and safety. 17
1.4.8 Ozone depleting chemicals.. 17
1.5 APPROVAL PROCEDURES. 17
1.6 SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND SYSTEMS OF UNITS. 18
1.6.1 Symbols and abbreviations.. 18
1.6.1.1 Constituent properties.. 23
1.6.1.2 Laminae and laminates .. 23
1.6.1.3 Subscripts .. 24
1.6.1.4 Superscripts.. 25
1.6.1.5 Acronyms 26
1.6.2 System of units .. 27
1.7 DEFINITIONS.. 29
REFERENCES . 50
CHAPTER 2 GUIDELINES FOR PROPERTY TESTING OF COMPOSITES . 1
2.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
2.1.1 Building-block approach to substantiation of composite structures 1
2.1.2 Test levels and data uses 2
2.1.2.1 Structural complexity levels . 2
2.1.2.2 Data application categories . 3
2.1.2.3 Test program definition .. 4
2.2 TEST PROGRAM PLANNING 5
2.2.1 Overview. 5
2.2.2 Baseline and alternate approaches for statistically-based properties .. 6
2.2.3 Issues of data equivalence . 6
2.2.4 Test method selection 7
2.2.5 Population sampling and sizing ..11
2.2.5.1 Sample size selection11
2.2.5.2 Batch quantity effects on ANOVA .. 12
2.2.6 Material and processing variation, specimen preparation and NDE .. 13
2.2.6.1 Materials and material processing. 13
2.2.6.2 Specimen preparation and NDE. 16
2.2.7 Moisture absorption and conditioning factors. 16
2.2.7.1 Moisture diffusivity . 18
2.2.7.2 Moisture equilibrium content. 18
2.2.7.3 Conditioning and test environment 20
2.2.8 Material operational limit (MOL). 20
2.2.8.1 Steam pressure delamination .. 24
2.2.8.2 MOL considerations for high temperature composite systems .. 24
2.2.8.3 Hot Wet Testing - Report Moisture Content at Failure. 27
2.2.9 Nonambient testing.. 29
2.2.10 Unidirectional lamina properties from laminates 29
2.2.11 Data normalization 29
2.2.12 Data documentation. 29
2.2.13 Application specific testing needs. 31
2.3 RECOMMENDED TEST MATRICES 31
2.3.1 Material screening test matrices 31
2.3.1.1 Mechanical property screening 31
2.3.1.2 Mechanical property screening for high-temperature material systems. 32
2.3.1.3 Fluid sensitivity screening.. 33
2.3.2 Material qualification test matrices .. 38
2.3.2.1 Constituent test matrix . 38
2.3.2.2 Prepreg test matrix 38
2.3.2.3 Lamina test matrices. 39
2.3.2.4 Filament-wound materials test matrix.. 41
2.3.3 Material acceptance test matrices 42
2.3.4 Alternate material equivalence test matrices.. 42
2.3.4.1 Qualification of alternate source composite materials. 42
2.3.4.1.1 Introduction 42
2.3.4.1.2 Goal and approach 42
2.3.4.1.3 Material compatibility 43
2.3.4.1.4 Key material or structural performance parameters. 43
2.3.4.1.5 Success criteria .. 43
2.3.4.1.6 Lamina-level test matrices for alternate material assessment 45
2.3.4.1.7 Laminate-level test matrices for alternate material assessment 48
2.3.4.1.8 Alternate material evaluation summary.. 48
2.3.4.2 Evaluation of changes made to previously qualified materials 48
2.3.4.2.1 Modification categories 50
2.3.4.2.2 Actions required for each modification category 51
2.3.4.2.3 Implementation 51
2.3.4.2.4 Validation test matrices .. 56
2.3.5 Generic laminate/structural element test matrices .. 56
2.3.5.1 Introduction 56
2.3.5.2 Overview. 58
2.3.5.2.1 Laminate strength test matrix .. 58
2.3.5.2.2 Bolt bearing and bearing/bypass strength test matrix. 60
2.3.6 Alternate approaches to basis values. 64
2.3.6.1 Lamina mechanical property test matrix for regression analysis .. 64
2.3.7 Data substantiation for use of basis values from MIL-HDBK-17 or other large databases . 66
2.4 DATA REDUCTION AND DOCUMENTATION. 67
2.4.1 Introduction .. 67
2.4.2 Lamina properties from laminates 67
2.4.2.1 Methodology . 68
2.4.2.2 Tension strength tests.. 69
2.4.2.3 Compression strength tests.. 70
2.4.2.4 Other properties.. 70
2.4.3 Data normalization 70
2.4.3.1 Normalization theory. 71
2.4.3.2 Normalization methodology .. 71
2.4.3.3 Practical application of normalization .. 74
2.4.4 Dispositioning of Outlier Data . 75
2.4.5 Data documentation. 78
2.5 MATERIAL TESTING FOR SUBMISSION OF DATA TO MIL-HDBK-17 78
2.5.1 Introduction .. 78
2.5.2 Material and process specification requirements . 80
2.5.3 Sampling requirements.. 80
2.5.3.1 Additional requirements for B and A data classes . 81
2.5.3.2 Data pooling.. 81
2.5.4 Conditioning requirements 82
2.5.5 Test method requirements 82
2.5.6 Data documentation requirements 82
2.5.7 Data normalization 87
2.5.8 Statistical analysis. 87
2.5.9 Mechanical properties of laminae and laminates . 87
2.5.9.1 Unidirectional properties from laminates .. 87
2.5.9.2 Strength and strain-to-failure 87
2.5.9.3 Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratios, and stress/strain curves . 88
2.5.10 Chemical properties . 88
2.5.11 Physical properties of laminae and laminates 88
2.5.11.1 Density. 88
2.5.11.2 Composition.. 88
2.5.11.3 Equilibrium moisture content 88
2.5.11.4 Moisture diffusivity . 88
2.5.11.5 Coefficient of moisture expansion . 88
2.5.11.6 Glass transition temperature 88
2.5.12 Thermal properties 89
2.5.12.1 Coefficient of thermal expansion 89
2.5.12.2 Specific heat . 89
2.5.12.3 Thermal conductivity. 89
2.5.12.4 Thermal diffusivity.. 89
2.5.13 Electrical properties . 90
2.5.14 Fatigue 90
REFERENCES . 92
CHAPTER 3 EVALUATION OF REINFORCEMENT FIBERS . 1
3.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
3.2 CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES .. 1
3.2.1 Elemental analysis .. 1
3.2.2 Titration . 2
3.2.3 Fiber structure 2
3.2.4 Fiber surface chemistry 2
3.2.5 Sizing content and composition 5
3.2.6 Moisture content .. 5
3.2.7 Thermal stability and oxidative resistance.. 5
3.2.8 Chemical resistance .. 5
3.3 PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES (INTRINSIC) .. 6
3.3.1 Filament diameter 6
3.3.2 Density of fibers 6
REFERENCES . 23
CHAPTER 4 MATRIX CHARACTERIZATION . 1
4.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
4.2 MATRIX SPECIMEN PREPARATION. 1
4.2.1 Introduction . 1
4.2.2 Thermoset polymers .. 2
4.2.3 Thermoplastic polymers 3
4.2.4 Specimen machining.. 3
4.3 CONDITIONING AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE .. 4
4.4 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES.. 4
4.4.1 Elemental analysis .. 4
4.4.2 Functional group and wet chemical analysis . 4
4.4.3 Spectroscopic analysis . 4
4.4.4 Chromatographic analysis .. 6
4.4.5 Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution analysis 6
4.4.6 General scheme for resin material characterization.. 7
4.5 THERMAL/PHYSICAL ANALYSIS AND PROPERTY TESTS . 14
4.5.1 Introduction .. 15
4.5.2 Thermal analysis 15
4.5.3 Rheological analysis 16
4.5.4 Morphology .. 17
4.5.5 Density/specific gravity .. 17
4.5.5.1 Overview. 17
4.5.5.2 Recommended procedure changes to Sections 6.6.4.2, 6.6.4.3 and
6.6.4.4 (D 792, D 1505 and helium pycnometry) for use in measuring cured resin density. 18
4.5.5.3 Density test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 18
4.5.6 Volatiles content. 19
4.5.7 Moisture content 19
4.6 STATIC MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTS 20
4.6.1 Introduction .. 20
4.6.2 Tension.. 20
4.6.2.1 Introduction 20
4.6.2.2 Specimen preparation.. 20
4.6.2.3 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 21
4.6.2.4 Tensile test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 22
4.6.3 Compression 22
4.6.3.1 Introduction 23
4.6.3.2 Specimen preparation.. 23
4.6.3.3 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 23
4.6.3.4 Limitations.. 24
4.6.3.5 Compressive test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal.. 24
4.6.4 Shear .. 24
4.6.4.1 Test methods available 24
4.6.4.2 Torsion specimen preparation . 25
4.6.4.3 Iosipescu shear specimen preparation 25
4.6.4.4 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 25
4.6.4.5 Limitations.. 25
4.6.4.6 Shear testing methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 25
4.6.5 Flexure.. 26
4.6.5.1 Introduction 26
4.6.5.2 Specimen preparation.. 26
4.6.5.3 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 26
4.6.5.4 Flexural test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal . 27
4.6.6 Impact . 27
4.6.7 Hardness.. 27
4.7 FATIGUE TESTING 27
4.8 TESTING OF VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES 28
REFERENCES . 29
CHAPTER 5 PREPREG MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION .. 1
5.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
5.2 CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES - OVERVIEW. 1
5.3 SAMPLING.. 2
5.4 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTY TESTS.. 2
5.4.1 Physical description of reinforcement 2
5.4.1.1 Alignment.. 2
5.4.1.2 Gaps 2
5.4.1.3 Width 3
5.4.1.4 Length . 3
5.4.1.5 Edges.. 3
5.4.1.6 Splices 3
5.4.2 Resin content . 3
5.4.3 Fiber content .. 3
5.4.4 Volatiles content 3
5.4.5 Moisture content .. 4
5.4.6 Inorganic fillers and additives content .. 4
5.4.7 Areal weight 4
5.4.8 Tack and drape . 4
5.4.9 Resin flow 4
5.4.10 Gel time 4
5.5 TEST METHODS .. 4
5.5.1 Resin extraction procedure for epoxy resin prepregs 4
5.5.2 Procedure for HPLC/HPSEC analysis of glass, aramid, and graphite fiber prepregs.. 6
5.5.2.1 Reverse phase HPLC analysis.. 6
5.5.2.2 Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) analysis . 7
5.5.3 Procedure for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) 7
5.5.4 Procedure for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) . 7
5.5.5 Procedure for dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).. 8
5.5.6 Procedure for rheological characterization. 8
REFERENCES 9
CHAPTER 6 LAMINA, LAMINATE, AND SPECIAL FORM CHARACTERIZATION .. 1
6.1 INTRODUCTION.. 1
6.2 SPECIMEN PREPARATION 1
6.2.1 Introduction . 1
6.2.2 Traceability. 2
6.2.3 Test article fabrication 2
6.2.4 Specimen fabrication . 3
6.3 CONDITIONING AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE .. 4
6.3.1 Introduction . 4
6.3.2 Fixed-time conditioning. 5
6.3.3 Equilibrium conditioning 6
6.3.3.1 Accelerating conditioning times . 7
6.3.3.2 Procedural hints. 8
6.4 INSTRUMENTATION AND CALIBRATION 10
6.4.1 Introduction .. 10
6.4.2 Test specimen dimensional measurement .. 10
6.4.2.1 Introduction 10
6.4.2.2 Calibrated microscopes .. 10
6.4.2.3 Micrometers .. 10
6.4.2.4 Scaled calipers .11
6.4.2.5 Precision scales11
6.4.2.6 Rulers and tape measures. 12
6.4.2.7 Special hole diameter measuring devices . 12
6.4.2.8 Calibration of dimensional measurement devices. 12
6.4.3 Load measurement devices. 12
6.4.3.1 Introduction 12
6.4.3.2 Load cells 13
6.4.3.2.1 Design and specification considerations 13
6.4.3.3 Other load measuring systems 14
6.4.3.4 Instrumentation and calibration .. 14
6.4.3.5 Precautions 15
6.4.4 Strain/displacement measurement devices . 15
6.4.4.1 Introduction 15
6.4.4.2 LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) deflectometers 16
6.4.4.3 Contacting extensometers. 16
6.4.4.3.1 Contacting extensometers, applications 16
6.4.4.4 Bondable resistance strain gages . 17
6.4.4.4.1 Strain gage selection 17
6.4.4.4.2 Surface preparation and bonding of strain gages . 17
6.4.4.4.3 Strain gage circuits 17
6.4.4.4.4 Strain gage instrumentation . 18
6.4.4.4.5 Strain gage instrumentation calibration.. 19
6.4.4.5 Other methods . 19
6.4.4.5.1 Optical methods of extensometry.. 19
6.4.4.5.2 Capacitative extensometers . 20
6.4.4.6 Special considerations for textile composites.. 20
6.4.5 Temperature measurement devices 20
6.4.5.1 Introduction 20
6.4.5.2 Thermocouples 20
6.4.5.3 Metallic resistive temperature devices. 21
6.4.5.4 Thermistors 22
6.4.5.5 Bimetallic devices .. 22
6.4.5.6 Liquid expansion devices 22
6.4.5.7 Change-of-state devices. 22
6.4.5.8 Infrared detectors 23
6.4.5.9 Calibration of temperature measurement devices. 23
6.4.6 Data acquisition systems .. 26
6.5 TESTING ENVIRONMENTS. 26
6.5.1 Introduction .. 26
6.5.2 Laboratory ambient test environment . 26
6.5.3 Non-ambient testing environment. 26
6.5.3.1 Introduction 26
6.5.3.2 Subambient testing 27
6.5.3.3 Above ambient testing . 27
6.6 THERMAL/PHYSICAL PROPERTY TESTS. 28
6.6.1 Introduction .. 28
6.6.2 Extent of cure.. 28
6.6.3 Glass transition temperature 29
6.6.3.1 Overview. 29
6.6.3.2 Tg Measurements 29
6.6.3.2.1 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) . 29
6.6.3.2.2 Thermomechanical analysis (TMA).. 30
6.6.3.2.3 Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).. 32
6.6.3.3 Glass transition test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal . 33
6.6.3.4 Crystalline melt temperature. 33
6.6.4 Density.. 34
6.6.4.1 Overview. 34
6.6.4.2 ASTM D 792, Standard Test Method for Density and Specific Gravity
(Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement .. 34
6.6.4.3 ASTM D 1505, Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the
Density-Gradient Technique . 35
6.6.4.4 Use of helium pycnometry to determine density of composites . 36
6.6.4.4.1 Helium pycnometry test procedure for determining composite
density . 38
6.6.4.5 Summary of helium pycnometry experimental results. 39
6.6.4.6 Density test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 40
6.6.5 Cured ply thickness . 40
6.6.5.1 Overview. 41
6.6.5.2 Thickness measurement using direct means .. 41
6.6.5.3 Thickness measurement using indirect means .. 41
6.6.5.4 SRM 10R-94, SACMA Recommended Method for Fiber Volume,
Percent Resin Volume and Calculated Average Cured Ply Thickness of
Plied Laminates .. 42
6.6.5.5 Cured ply thickness test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 42
6.6.6 Fiber volume (Vf) fraction . 42
6.6.6.1 Introduction 42
6.6.6.2 Matrix digestion 42
6.6.6.3 Ignition loss 43
6.6.6.4 Areal weight/thickness. 43
6.6.6.5 Determination of fiber volume using image analysis 45
6.6.6.5.1 Background .. 45
6.6.6.5.2 Apparatus .. 45
6.6.6.5.3 Specimen preparation . 45
6.6.6.5.4 Image analysis 46
6.6.6.5.5 Sources of error.. 47
6.6.7 Void volume (Vv) fraction .. 48
6.6.7.1 Introduction 48
6.6.7.2 Digestive evaluation.. 48
6.6.7.3 Determination of void volume using image analysis 49
6.6.7.3.1 Background .. 49
6.6.7.3.2 Sources of Error . 50
6.6.8 Moisture/diffusivity 52
6.6.8.1 Standard test methods. 53
6.6.8.2 Moisture diffusion property test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data
submittal.. 54
6.6.9 Dimensional stability (Thermal and Moisture) 54
6.6.9.1 Dimensional stability (thermal) 55
6.6.9.1.1 Introduction 55
6.6.9.1.2 Existing test methods .. 55
6.6.9.1.3 Test specimens 56
6.6.9.1.4 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 57
6.6.9.1.5 CTE test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 57
6.6.9.2 Dimensional stability (moisture).. 58
6.6.9.2.1 Introduction 58
6.6.9.2.2 Specimen preparation . 59
6.6.9.2.3 Test apparatus and instrumentation . 59
6.6.9.2.4 CME test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 60
6.6.10 Thermal conductivity 60
6.6.10.1 Introduction 60
6.6.10.2 Available methods . 60
6.6.10.2.1 ASTM C177-97 61
6.6.10.2.2 ASTM E1225-99. 62
6.6.10.2.3 ASTM C518-98 63
6.6.10.2.4 Fourier thermal conductivity test method for flat plates . 64
6.6.10.3 Thermal conductivity test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data .. 68
6.6.11 Specific heat 68
6.6.11.1 Introduction 68
6.6.11.2 Available method 68
6.6.11.2.1 ASTM E1269-95. 68
6.6.11.3 Specific heat test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 70
6.6.12 Thermal diffusivity. 70
6.6.12.1 Introduction 70
6.6.12.2 Available test methods. 71
6.6.12.2.1 ASTM E1461-92. 71
6.6.12.2.2 ASTM C714-85 76
6.6.12.3 Thermal diffusivity test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 76
6.6.13 Outgassing 76
6.6.14 Absorptivity and emissivity 77
6.6.15 Thermal cycling.. 77
6.6.16 Microcracking.. 77
6.6.16.1 Introduction 77
6.6.16.2 Microcracking due to the manufacturing process.. 77
6.6.16.3 Microcracking due thermal cycling 78
6.6.16.4 Microcracking due to mechanical loading/cycling . 78
6.6.17 Thermal oxidative stability (TOS).. 78
6.6.18 Flammability and smoke generation 78
6.6.18.1 Introduction 78
6.6.18.2 Fire growth test methods 78
6.6.18.2.1 ASTM E 84 - Surface burning characteristics of building materials. 79
6.6.18.2.2 ASTM E 162 - Surface flammability of materials using a radiant
heat energy source 80
6.6.18.2.3 ISO 9705 fire test – full-scale room test for surface products . 81
6.6.18.2.4 ASTM E 1321 - Determining material ignition and flame spread
properties .. 81
6.6.18.3 Smoke and toxicity test methods 82
6.6.18.3.1 ASTM E 662 - Specific optical density of smoke generated by solid
materials. 82
6.6.18.3.2 NFPA 269 - Developing toxic potency data for use in fire hazard
modeling. 83
6.6.18.4 Heat release test methods. 84
6.6.18.4.1 ASTM E-1354 - Heat and visible smoke release rates for materials
and products using an oxygen consumption calorimeter.. 84
6.6.18.4.2 ASTM E 906 – Heat and visible smoke release rates for materials
and products. 85
6.6.18.5 Fire resistance test methods 86
6.6.18.5.1 ASTM E-119 - Fire tests for building construction and materials .. 86
6.6.18.5.2 ASTM E-1529 - Determining effects of large hydrocarbon pool fires on structural members and assemblies and UL 1709 - Rapid rise fire tests of protection materials for structural teel. 87
6.7 ELECTRICAL PROPERTY TESTS 87
6.7.1 Introduction .. 87
6.7.2 Electrical permittivity 88
6.7.3 Dielectric strength . 88
6.7.4 Magnetic permeability. 88
6.7.5 Electromagnetic interference.. 88
6.7.6 Electrostatic discharage. 88
6.8 STATIC UNIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTS. 88
6.8.1 Introduction .. 88
6.8.2 Tensile properties.. 89
6.8.2.1 Overview. 90
6.8.2.2 In-plane tension test methods . 91
6.8.2.2.1 Straight-sided specimen tension tests. 91
6.8.2.2.2 Filament-wound tubes. 94
6.8.2.2.3 Width tapered specimens:. 94
6.8.2.2.4 Split-disk ring tension test . 95
6.8.2.2.5 Sandwich beam test . 95
6.8.2.3 Out-of-plane tensile test methods.. 97
6.8.2.3.1 Introduction 97
6.8.2.3.2 Direct out-of-plane loading adaptations of ASTM C 297/C 633/D 2095. 97
6.8.2.3.3 Curved beam approach to out-of-plane tensile strength. 102
6.8.2.4 Tension test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 102
6.8.3 Compressive properties.. 104
6.8.3.1 Overview.. 104
6.8.3.2 In-plane compression tests. 105
6.8.3.2.1 ASTM D 3410/D 3410M, Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials With Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Loading .. 105
6.8.3.2.2 ASTM D 6484, Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates Using a Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Fixture.. 106
6.8.3.2.3 ASTM D 5467, Compressive Properties of Unidirectional Polymer Matrix Composites Using a Sandwich Beam 109
6.8.3.2.4 ASTM C 393, Flexural Properties of Flat Sandwich Constructions 110
6.8.3.2.5 ASTM D 695, Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics .111
6.8.3.2.6 SACMA SRM 1R, Compressive Properties of Oriented Fiber-Resin Composites .112
6.8.3.2.7 SACMA SRM 6, Compressive Properties of Oriented Cross-Plied Fiber-Resin Composites113
6.8.3.2.8 Through-thickness compression tests114
6.8.3.3 Compressive test methods for developing MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 114
6.8.4 Shear properties ..116
6.8.4.1 Overview116
6.8.4.2 In-plane shear tests .117
6.8.4.2.1 ±45° tensile shear tests .117
6.8.4.2.2 Iosipescu shear test 119
6.8.4.2.3 Rail shear tests. 123
6.8.4.2.4 Ten-degree off-axis shear test.. 123
6.8.4.2.5 Tube torsion tests 124
6.8.4.3 Out-of-plane shear tests .. 125
6.8.4.3.1 Short-beam strength tests .. 125
6.8.4.3.2 Iosipescu shear test .. 126
6.8.4.3.3 ASTM D 3846-79, Test Method for In-Plane Shear Strength of Reinforced Plastics. 126
6.8.4.4 Shear test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal .. 127
6.8.5 Flexural properties . 128
6.8.6 Fracture toughness properties. 128
6.8.6.1 Overview.. 128
6.8.6.2 General discussion . 129
6.8.6.3 Mode I test methods .. 131
6.8.6.3.1 Double cantilever beam (DCB) test, ASTM D 5528 .. 131
6.8.6.3.2 Other mode I tests.. 133
6.8.6.4 Mode II test methods . 133
6.8.6.4.1 End notched flexure (ENF) test 133
6.8.6.4.2 Other mode II tests. 134
6.8.6.5 Mode III test methods 134
6.8.6.6 Mixed mode test methods .. 135
6.8.6.6.1 Mixed mode specimen or crack lap shear (CLS) 135
6.8.6.6.2 Mixed mode bending (MMB) test 135
6.8.6.6.3 Edge delamination test. 136
6.8.6.7 Fracture toughness tests for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 137
6.9 UNIAXIAL FATIGUE TESTING . 137
6.10 MULTIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTING. 137
6.11 VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES TESTS .. 138
6.11.1 Introduction 138
6.11.2 Creep and stress relaxation.. 138
6.12 FORM-SPECIFIC MECHANICAL PROPERTY TESTS 139
6.12.1 Tests unique to filament winding. 139
6.12.1.1 Overview.. 139
6.12.1.2 History 139
6.12.1.3 Tension tests for uniaxial material properties 140
6.12.1.3.1 Zero degree tension .. 140
6.12.1.3.2 Transverse tension. 140
6.12.1.4 Compression tests for uniaxial material properties 140
6.12.1.4.1 Zero degree compression .. 140
6.12.1.4.2 Transverse compression . 140
6.12.1.5 Shear tests for uniaxial material properties 140
6.12.1.5.1 In-plane shear .. 140
6.12.1.5.2 Transverse shear. 140
6.12.1.6 Test methods for MIL-HDBK-17 data submittal 140
6.12.2 Tests unique to textiles composites .. 141
6.12.2.1 Overview.. 141
6.12.2.2 Background. 142
6.12.2.3 Fabric and two-dimensional weaves . 142
6.12.2.3.1 Physical property

Spider Optimizer

© Copyright 2000 - 2021, by Engineers Edge, LLC www.engineersedge.com
All rights reserved
Disclaimer | Feedback | Advertising | Contact

Date/Time:


User Reviews/Comments:

There are currently no comments available.


Add a Comment (you must be logged in to post comment Register):
Name:
Email: (Optional)
Comment: