Strain - Strength ( Mechanics ) of Materials
In the use of metal for mechanical engineering purposes, a given state of stress usually exists in a considerable volume of the material. Reaction of the atomic structure will manifest itself on a macroscopic scale. Therefore, whenever a stress (no matter how small) is applied to a metal, a proportional dimensional change or distortion must take place.
Such a proportional dimensional change (intensity or degree of the distortion) is called strain and is measured as the total elongation per unit length of material due to some applied stress.The equation below illustrates this proportion or distortion.
strain (in./in., mm/mm)
δ = total elongation or change of length after force applied (in., mm)
L = original length (in., mm)
Types of Strain
Strain may take two forms; elastic strain and plastic deformation.
Elastic strain is a transitory dimensional change that exists only while the initiating stress is applied and disappears immediately upon removal of the stress. Elastic strain is also called elastic deformation. The applied stresses cause the atoms in a crystal to move from their equilibrium position. All the atoms are displaced the same amount and still maintain their relative geometry. When the stresses are removed, all the atoms return to their original positions and no permanent deformation occurs.
Plastic deformation (or plastic strain) is a dimensional change that does not disappear when the initiating stress is removed. It is usually accompanied by some elastic strain. The phenomenon of elastic strain and plastic deformation in a material are called elasticity and plasticity, respectively. At room temperature, most metals have some elasticity, which manifests itself as soon as the slightest stress is applied. Usually, they also possess some plasticity, but this may not become apparent until the stress has been raised appreciably. The magnitude of plastic strain, when it does appear, is likely to be much greater than that of the elastic strain for a given stress increment. Metals are likely to exhibit less elasticity and more plasticity at elevated temperatures. A few pure unalloyed metals (notably aluminum, copper and gold) show little, if any, elasticity when stressed in the annealed (heated and then cooled slowly to prevent brittleness) condition at room temperature, but do exhibit marked plasticity. Some unalloyed metals and many alloys have marked elasticity at room temperature, but no plasticity.
The state of stress just before plastic strain begins to appear is known as the proportional limit, or elastic limit, and is defined by the stress level and the corresponding value of elastic strain. The proportional limit is expressed in pounds per square inch. For load intensities beyond the proportional limit, the deformation consists of both elastic and plastic strains. As mentioned previously in this chapter, strain measures the proportional dimensional change with no load applied. Such values of strain are easily determined and only cease to be sufficiently accurate when plastic strain becomes dominant.