Extended Bernoulli Concepts and Equations
The Bernoulli equation can be modified to take into account gains and losses of head. The resulting equation, referred to as the Extended Bernoulli equation, is very useful in solving most fluid flow problems. In fact, the Extended Bernoulli equation is probably used more than any other fluid flow equation. Equation 3-12 is one form of the Extended Bernoulli equation.
The head loss due to fluid friction (Hf) represents the energy used in overcoming friction caused by the walls of the pipe. Although it represents a loss of energy from the standpoint of fluid flow, it does not normally represent a significant loss of total energy of the fluid. It also does not violate the law of conservation of energy since the head loss due to friction results in an equivalent increase in the internal energy (u) of the fluid. These losses are greatest as the fluid flows through entrances, exits, pumps, valves, fittings, and any other piping with rough inner surfaces.
Most techniques for evaluating head loss due to friction are empirical (based almost exclusively on experimental evidence) and are based on a proportionality constant called the friction factor (f), which will be discussed in the next section.
Example: Extended Bernoulli
To use the modified form of Bernoullis equation, reference points are chosen at the surface of the reservoir (point 1) and at the outlet of the pipe (point 2). The pressure at the surface of the reservoir is the same as the pressure at the exit of the pipe, i.e., atmospheric pressure. The velocity at point 1 will be essentially zero.
Using the equation for the mass flow rate to determine the velocity at point 2:
Now we can use the Extended Bernoulli equation to determine the required pump head.
The student should note that the solution of this example problem has a numerical value that "makes sense" from the data given in the problem. The total head increase of 67 ft. is due primarily to the 65 ft. evaluation increase and the 2 ft. of friction head.