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Heat and Thermodynamics

Heat Transfer Engineering

Heat and Thermodynamics
684 Pages
Mark W. Zemansky, Ph.D.

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Open: Heat and Thermodynamics


When the first edition of "Heat and Thermodynamics" appeared thirty years ago, it was intended for students preparing for careers in physics, in chemistry, and in all branches of engineering. It was designed for sophomores, or at most juniors, and was meant to be a first introduction to the principles and subject matter of thermodynamics. To achieve this end, it started with the most elementary ideas of temperature and heat and developed the laws of thermodynamics from their experimental and engineering backgrounds, as well as presented applications of thermodynamics more or less equally divided among the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and engineering.

In subsequent editions, this original purpose was maintained, but more attention was paid to the needs of students interested in mathematics, physics, and physical chemistry, and only small changes were made in the engineering material. Owing to the fact that in 1966 a separate engineering version of this book, entitled "Basic Engineering Thermodynamics," became available and also that the conviction was expressed by many physics teachers that it was desirable to include some kinetic theory and statistical mechanics in courses on "heat," this latest edition, the fifth, is markedly different from the first four. Only the barest engineering principles involved in the operation of heat engines and refrigerators have been retained. Details concerning convective heat transfer and the analysis of heat exchangers have been removed. In their place, a chapter on the elementary principles of kinetic theory has been substituted; in addition, a separate chapter and several other articles have been devoted to the statistical mechanics of an ideal gas, an electron gas in a metal, a vibrating lattice, and a paramagnetic subsystem in a crystal.

The point of view is still preeminently thermodynamic. Thermodynamics is the fundamental discipline, and statistical methods are introduced only to supply details that arc not included within the scope of thermodynamics, such as equations of state and temperature variation of heat capacities, and to provide greater insight with regard to processes such as the production of low temperatures by adiabatic demagnetization and the. production of negative temperatures in a nuclear magnetic subsystem. The second law of thermodynamics is still regarded as a generalization from experience with heat engines and refrigerators. Through use of simple nonmathematical methods suggested in the writings of Turner, Pippard, and Landsberg, the existence of reversible adiabatic surfaces is shown to follow directly from the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law. The existence of an absolute temperature and of an entropy function are then deduced, without invoking the advanced mathematical techniques of Caratheodory.

Low-temperature physics is not confined to one chapter. Most of the new data in tables and graphs are recent values in the temperature range from to 300°K. As in the previous editions, the experimental aspects of the subject have been emphasized. The parallel between the superfluidity of liquid helium II and the superconductivity of conductors has been accented by devoting an entire chapter to these two phenomena alone. Some of the more recent developments in the experimental and theoretical aspects of these phenomena have been treated, in order to provide at least an inkling of what is going on in these rapidly advancing fields. As a result, this fifth edition is somewhat more sophisticated and more difficult; however, no further preparation than a year of college physics and a year of calculus is needed to understand the text.


Chapter 1 Temperature
1-1 Macroscopic Point of View
1 -2 Microscopic Point of View
1-3 Macroscopic vs. Microscopic
1-4 Scope of Thermodynamics
1-5 Thermal Equilibrium
1-6 Temperature Concept
1-7 Measurement of Temperature
1-8 Comparison of Thermometers
1-9 Gas Thermometer
1-10 Ideal-gas Temperature
1-11 Celsius Temperature Scale
1-12 Electric Resistance Thermometry
1-13 Thermocouple
1-14 International Practical Temperature Scale

Chapter 2 Simple Thermodynamic Systems
2-1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium
2-2 PV Diagram for a Pure Substance
2-3 P8 Diagram for a Pure Substance
2-4 PV6 Surface
2-5 Equations of State
2-6 Differential Changes of State
2-7 Mathematical Theorems
2-8 Stretched Wire
2-9 Surface Film
2-10 Reversible Cell
2-11 Paramagnetic Solid
2-12 Intensive and Extensive Quantities

Chapter 3 Work
3-1 Work
3-2 Quasi-static Process
3-3 Work of a Hydrostatic System
3-4 • PV Diagram
3-5 Work Depends on the Path
3-6 Work in Quasi-static Processes
3-7 Work of a Wire, a Surface Film, and a Reversible Cell
3-8 Work in Changing the Magnetization of a Magnetic Solid
3-9 Summary
3-10 Compound Systems

Chapter 4 Heat and the First Law
4-1 Work and Heat
4-2 Adiabatic Work
4-3 Internal-energy Function
4-4 Mathematical Formulation of the First Law
4-5 Concept of Heat
4-6 Differential Form of the First Law
4-7 "Heat Capacity and Its Measurement
4-8 Heat Capacity of Water; The Calorie
4-9 Equations for a Hydrostatic System
4-10 Quasi-static Flow of Heat; Heat Reservoir
4-11 Heat Conduction
4-12 Thermal Conductivity
4-13 Pleat Convection
4-14 Thermal Radiation; Blackbody
4-15 Kirchhoff's Law; Radiated Heat
4-16 Stcfan-Boltzmann Law

Chapter 5 Ideal Gases
5-1 Equation of State of a Gas 1 1
5-2 Internal Energy of a Gas 1 1
5-3 Ideal Gas 119
5-4 Experimental Determination of Heat Capacities 122
5-5 Quasi-static Adiabatic Process 124
5-6 Clement and Desormcs Method of Measuring y 126
5-7 Riichhardt's Method of Measuring y 128
5-8 Modifications of Riichhardt's Method 130
5-9 Speed of a Longitudinal Wave

Chapter 6 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas
6-1 The Microscopic Point of View 145
6-2 Equation of State of an Ideal Gas 147
6-3 Distribution of Molecular Velocities 153
6-4 Maxwellian Speeds and Temperature 157
6-5 Equipartition of Energy

Chapter 7 Engines, Refrigerators, and the Second Law
7-1 Conversion of Work into Heat, and Vice Versa 166
7-2 The Stirling Engine 1 68
7-3 The Steam Engine 171
7-4 Internal Combustion Engines 173
7-5 Kelvin-Planck Statement of the Second Law 177
7-6 The Refrigerator 179
7-7 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements 185

Chapter 8 Reversibility and the Kelvin Temperature Scale
8-1 Reversibility and Irreversibility
8-2 External Mechanical Irreversibility
8-3 Internal Mechanical Irreversibility
8-4 External and Internal Thermal Irreversibility
8-5 Chemical Irreversibility
8-6 Conditions for Reversibility
8-7 Existence of Reversible Adiabatic Surfaces
8-8 Integrability of dQ
8-9 Physical Significance of X 204
8-10 Kelvin Temperature Scale 207
8-11 Equality of Ideal-gas Temperature and Kelvin Temperature 209

Chapter 9 Entropy
Chapter 10 Statistical Mechanics
Chapter 11 Pure Substances
Chapter 12 Phase Transitions; Liquid and Solid Helium
Chapter 13 Special Topics
Chap ter 14 Paramagnetism, Cryogenics, Negative, Temperatures, and the Third Law
Chapter 15 Superfluidity and Superconductivity
Chapter 16 Chemical Equilibrium
Chapter 17 Ideal-gas Reactions
Chapter 18 Heterogeneous Systems