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Building Stones Clays Handbook

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Building Stones Clays, A Handbook for Architects and Engineers

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Building Stones Clays Handbook, A Handbook for Architects and Engineers

Preface

The present volume is an outgrowth of the author's needs in his own classroom. The matter is essentially that pre- sented to his classes in a brief course in the College of Applied Science for Civil Engineers, in the College of Fine Arts for Architects and in the College of Liberal Arts for students of Economic Geology. The work has been multigraphed, bound and used as a manuscript textbook. It is now published for the greater advantage to his own students, and with the hope that it may be useful to others.

The object has been to furnish an elementary knowledge of the essential minerals in building stones and the objectionable minerals they sometimes contain ; to show the chief character- istics of the more important building stones; to give their geographical distribution and range in compressive strength ; to impart some information as to the physical and chemical properties of clays and the products that may be manufactured from them.

The author has attempted to state the essential facts and explanations as clearly and simply as possible and to observe a logical order and a due proportion between different parts. The larger amount of space is given to each type of building stone in the state where it is the most abundant.

Great care has been taken in classifying and arranging the subject matter that it may follow the order as closely as possible of the various lecture courses on building stones and clays in our different colleges and universities.

The author wishes to express here his great indebtedness for constant assistance in the preparation of this work to his colleagues on the University Faculty : Professors T. C. Hopkins, Burnett Smith, A. E. Brainerd, B. W. Clark and H. G. Turner. Also his greater indebtedness to Prof. G. H. Chadwick of the University of Rochester for his careful checking of results and verifying data, and to Prof. W. F. Prouty of the University of Alabama for his contribution on the Marbles of Alabama.

The most of the illustrations are made from the author's own photographs but he wishes to recognize the hearty co-operation of the United States Geological Survey; the Woodbury Granite Company, Hardwick, Vermont; the Vermont Marble Company, Proctor, Vermont; the National Building Brick Association, Indianapolis, Indiana ; the National Paving Brick Manufacturers Association, Cleveland, Ohio; the Kimball Photographic Company, Concord, New Hampshire and the I. U. Doust Photographic Company, Syracuse, New York. Acknowledgments for all other cuts or photos are made under the respective illustrations.

Charles Henry Richardson. Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.

TOC

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION 1-14

Definition of building stones, 1. Minerals of building stones, 1-3. Definition, 1. Number, 2. Classification, 2. Essential, 2. Non-essential, 3. Description of minerals, 3-14. Quartz, 3. The feldspars, 3. The micas, 5. The amphiboles, 6. The pyroxenes, 7. The nephelite group, 8. The chrysolite group, 8. The epidote group, 8. The hydrous silicates, 9. The carbonates, 10. The non-essential minerals, 12.

CHAPTER II

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WEATHERING OF BUILDING STONES . 15-37 Physical properties, 15. Color, 15. Hardness, 17. Specific gravity, 18. Density, 18. Texture, 20. State of aggrega- tion, 21. Chemical properties, 21. Structures that aid in quarrying, 22. Rift and grain, 27. Compression, 29. Transverse strength, 29. The weathering of building stones, 29-35. Chemical, 29. Vegetation, 32. Bacteria, 32. Physical agencies, 32. Frost, 33. Friction, 33. ' Indura- tion, 33. Life, 33. Selection of building stone, 34. Methods of testing building stone, 35-37. Color test, 35. Corrosion test, 35. Abrasion test, 35. Absorption test, 36. Freezing test, 36. Expansion and contraction test, 36. Fire resist- ing test, 36. Compression test, 37. Elasticity test, 37. Shearing test, 37. Specific gravity test, 37.

CHAPTER III

GRANITES . .... . . . : . 38-133 Definition, 38. Origin, 38. Mode of occurrence, 39. Name, 39. Economic classification, 39. Geographical distribution, 42. American granites, 42-96. California, 42. Colorado, 42. Connecticut, 45. Delaware. 47. Georgia, 47. Maine, 48- 55. Cumberland County, 49. Franklin County, 50. Hancock County, 50. Kennebec County, 52. Knox County, 52. Lin- coln County, 53. Oxford County, 53. Penobscot County, 53. Washington County, 54. York County, 55. Maryland, 55. Massachusetts, 56. Minnesota, 60. Missouri, 61. Mon- tana, 61. New Hampshire, 61. New Jersey, 68. New York, 69. North Carolina, 70. Oklahoma, 71. Pennsyl- vania, 71. Rhode Island, 71. South Carolina, 73. Tennes- see, 73. Texas, 73. Utah, 74. Vermont, 74-94. Caledonia County, 75 Essex County, 78. Orange County, 78. Orleans County, 79. Washington County, 84. Windham County, 90. Windsor County, 90. Virginia, 94. Wisconsin, 95. Wyoming, 96. Foreign granites, 96-100. British Columbia, 96. New Brunswick, 96. Nova Scotia, 96. Ontario, 96. Quebec, 96. England, 97. Ireland, 98, Scotland, 98. Egypt, 98. Sweden, 100. Industrial facts about granite, 100-116. Uses, 100. Quarrying, 112. Polishing, 114. Compression tests, 116. Chemical analyses, 117. Rocks related to granite, 120-130. Aplite, 120. Monzonite, 120. Syenite, 121. Porphyry, 121. Liparite, 126. Rhyolite, 126. Trachyte, 126. Phonolite, 126. Andesite, 126. Diabase, 127. Basalt, 127. Diorite, 128. Gabbro, 128. Norite, 129. Gneiss, 129. Volcanic tuff, 130. Table showing specific gravity, etc., 131. References, 132.

CHAPTER IV

LIMESTONES, DOLOMITES AND MAKIJLES 134-228 Definition, 134. Impurities, 135. Texture, 135. Varieties, 135. Origin, 137. Marbleization, 140. Alteration, 141. Dolomite, 142. Dolomite tests, 143. Color, 143. Hardness, 144. Specific Gravity, 144. Distribution, 144. Age, 144. American limestones and marbles, 144-195. Alabama, 144- 152. Arizona, 152. Arkansas, 152. California, 153-155. Colorado, 155. Connecticut, 156. Delaware, 157. Florida, 158. Georgia, 158, Idaho, 159. Iowa, 159. Illinois, 161. Indiana, 162. Kentucky, 162. Maryland, 162. Massachu- setts, 162. Minnesota, 163. Missouri, 163. Montana, 164. Nevada, 164. New Jersey, 164. New York, 165-168. The Hudson River belt, 165. The Champlain belt, 165. The St. Lawrence Valley belt, 167. The Central belt, 167. North Carolina, 168. Ohio, 168. Pennsylvania, 168. Ten- nessee, 169. Vermont, 170-194. Distribution, 170. The Rutland belt, 171. Varieties, 177-185. The Winooski dis- trict, 185-189. The Plymouth belt, 189. Isle La Motte belt, 190. The Washington district, 191-193. The Roxbury district, 193. Virginia, 194. Foreign limestones and marbles, 196-211. Africa, 196. Austria, 196, Belgium, 196. Bermuda, 197. British Columbia, 197. England, 197. Fluorite, 198. France, 198. Germany, 199. Ireland, 200. Italy, 200. Greece, 210. Mexico, 210. Nova Scotia, 210. Ontario, 210. Quebec, 211. Industrial facts about lime- stones and marbles, 211-224. Quarrying, 211. Manufacture, 212. Dressing, 212-221. Uses, 221. Compression tests, 221. Anaylses, 222-224. Table showing specific gravity, etc., 225. References, 226.

CHAPTER V

SANDSTONES 229-267 Definition, 229. Chemical composition, 229. Impurities, 229. Texture, 229. Color, 229. Varieties, 231. Cements, 232. Origin, 235. Age, 235. American sandstones, 235-254. Alabama, 235. Arizona, 235. Arkansas, 235. California, 236. Colorado, 236. Connecticut, 237. Georgia, 238. Idaho, 238. Illinois, 238. Indiana, 238. Iowa, 239. Kansas, 239. Kentucky, 239. Maine, 239. Maryland, 239. Massa- chusetts, 240. Michigan, 241. Minnesota, 242. Mississippi, 242. Missouri, 243. Montana, 243. Nebraska, 243. Nevada, 243. New Jersey, 244. New Mexico, 244. New York, 244-249. North Carolina, 249. Ohio, 249-. Oregon, 250. Pennsylvania, 250. North Dakota, 251. Tennessee, 251. Texas, 253. Utah, 253. Virginia, 253. Washington, 254. West Virginia, 254. Wisconsin, 254. Foreign sandstones, 254-260. Austria-Hungary, 254. Belgium, 255. British Columbia, 255. England, 255. France, 255. Ireland, 255. Germany, 256. India, 256. New Brunswick, 256. Nova Scotia, 257. Ontario, 257. Quebec, 257. Scotland, 257. South Africa, 259. Industrial facts about sandstones, 260-264. Quarrying, 260. Uses, 262. Compression tests, 262. Analyses, 263. Table showing specific gravity, etc., 265. References, 266.

CHAPTER VI

SHALE AND SLATE 267-302 Shale, 267. Definition, 267. Varieties, 267. Cements, 267. Uses, 268. Analyses, 268. Slate, 268. Definition, 268. Origin, 269. Igneous origin, 269. Composition, 270. Mineralogical composition, 270. Minerals of slates, 270. Classification, 270. Impurities, 271. Color, 271. Import- ance of color, 272. Structure, 272. Cleavage, 272. Tex- ture, 273. Specific gravity, 273. Transverse strength, 273. American slates, 273-291. Arizona, 273. Arkansas, 273. California, 273. Georgia, 274. Maine, 274-276. Maryland, 276. Massachusetts, 276. Michigan, 276. Minnesota, 276. New Hampshire, 277. New Jersey, 277. New York, 277. Pennsylvania, 277-281. Tennessee, 281. Utah, 281. Ver- mont, 281-289. The Connecticut River slates, 281. The Memphramagog slates, 282. The Cambro-Ordovician belt, 285-289. Characteristics of western Vermont slates, 287. The Benson belt, 289. Virginia, 289. West Virginia, 290. Foreign slates, 291-292. Canada, 291. England, 291. France, 292. Wales, 292. Industrial facts about slates, 292-300. Quarrying, 292. Manufacture, 293. Measure- ment, 295. Uses, 295. Slate waste, 296. Comparative tests, 297. Chemical analyses, 297. References, 301.

CHAPTER VII

SERPENTINE AND STEATITE 303-322 Serpentine, 303. Origin, 304. Characteristics, 304. Ameri- can serpentines, 304--309. California, 304. Connecticut, 305. Georgia, 305. Maine, 305. Maryland, 305. Massa- chusetts, 306. New Jersey, 306. New York, 306. North Carolina, 306. Pennsylvania, 306. Vermont, 306. Washington, 309. Foreign serpentines, 309-311. Canada, 309. England, 309. Ireland, 310. Italy, 310. Industrial facts about serpentine, 311. Compression tests, 312. Chemical analyses. 312. References, 313. Steatite, 314. Composition, 314. Origin, 314. Characteristics, 315. American steatites, 315-319. Arkansas, 315. California, 315. Maine, 316. Maryland, 316. Massachusetts, 316. New Hampshire, 316. New York, 316. North Carolina, 316. Pennsylvania, 316. South Carolina, 316. Texas, 316. Vermont, 317. Virginia, 317. Industrial facts about steatite, 319-321. Uses, 319. References, 322.

CHAPTER VIII

CLAYS 323-335 Clays, 323. Definition, 323. Mineralogical composition, 323. Chemical composition, 323. Size of grains, 323. Origin, 324. Residual clays, 325. Sedimentary clays, 325. Glacial clays, 325. Eolian clays, 325. Geological horizon, 326. Physical properties, 326. Plasticity, 326. Fusibility, 327. Color, 327. Slaking, 327. Tensile strength, 327. Air shrinkage, 328. Fire shrinkage, 328. Chemical components, 329. Kaolinite, 329. Silica, 329. Alumina, 329. Iron, 330. Lime, 331. Magnesia, 331. Alkalies, 331. Titanium dioxide, 332. Manganese oxide, 332. Sul- phuric acid, 332. Water, 332. Organic matter, 333. Chemical analysis, 333.

CHAPTER IX

MINING AND WASHING CLAYS ....',. 336-344 Mining, 336. Quarrying, 336. Wheel scraper, 336. Steam shovel, 336. Open pit, 336. Undermining, 338. Under- ground mining, 338. Drifting, 339. Shaft, 339. Haulage, 339. Preparation of clay, 340. Crushing, 340. Screening, 340. Washing, '340. Cyclonic separation, 342. Employ- ment of clays, 342. Value, 342. Uses, 342. References, 344.

CHAPTER X

BUILDING BRICK . . . . . . . . 345-360 Building brick, 345. Pressed brick, 345. Enamel brick, 345. Fire brick, 345. Molding, 347. Burning, 347. Water smoking, 348. Dehydration and oxidation, 348. Vitrifica- tion, 349. Coloration, 350. Artificial brick colors, 350. Classification of building brick, 351. Classification accord- ing to method of molding, 351, Classification according to position in kiln, 352. Classification according to use, 353. Tests for building brick, 354. Brick building in 1914, 356. Brick and tile production in 1915, 357. References, 360.

CHAPTER XI

PAVING MATERIALS ... . . . . . . . . . . . 361-382 Paving brick, 361. History, 361. Definition, 361. The clay, 361. Manufacture, 362. Molding, 363. Re-pressing, 363. Drying, 364. Burning, 364. Size, 365. Form, 365. Requisites, 366. Testing, 367. Merits of brick pavements, 370. Price of brick pavements, 371. Stone pavements, 373. History, 373. Size of blocks, 373. Granite, 373. Trap, 375. Sandstone, 376. Limestone, 379. Road building rocks, 379. Requisites, 379. Trap, 379. Granite, 380. Felsite, 380. Limestone, 380. Sandstone, 380. Chert, 380. Slate, 381. Shale, 381. Field stones, 382.

CHAPTER XII

CEMENT AND CONCRETE . .'..'... . . 383-393 Cement, 383. History, 383. Quicklime, 384. Lime mortar, 385. Hydraulic lime, 385. Natural cement, 385. Portland cement, 386. White Portland cement, 389. Pozzulana, 389. Properties of cement, 390. Concrete, 392. Advantages of concrete, 392. Theory of concrete, 392. Gravel vs. broken- stone concrete, 393. Portland cement vs. natural cement, 393. Wet vs. dry concrete, 393.

CHAPTER XIII

PAGES ARTIFICIAL STONE 394-403 Beton-Coignet, 394. Portland stone, 394. Sorel stone, 394. McMurtrie stone, 395. Frear stone, 395. Ransome stone, 395. Artificial marble, 396. Cut cast stone, 397. Atlantic terra cotta, 402. References, 403. APPENDIX I, SOME IMPORTANT STONE STRUCTURES .... 404-405 APPENDIX II, GLOSSARY 406-422 INDEX . 423-437

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