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Motor Car Engineering Text Book Volume I Construction

Motor Car Engineering, Text Book
Volume I Construction
A. Graham Clark
Published 1911

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Published in 1911 this book is primarily intended for the use of students of Motor Car Engineering ; but it is hoped that many engaged in this branch of Engineering science, including owners of cars, will derive some benefit from a perusal of this volume, which has been mainly written from the notes used by the Author in his lectures to Ordinary and Honors Grade Students at the Polytechnic School of Engineering, Regent Street, W.

An attempt has been made to cover the Syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute in this subject, which, as may be seen from pages 404 to 407, is very extensive, but it is believed that nothing vital has been omitted excepting the Materials of Construction and the problem of Balancing, which belong properly speaking to Design, and have therefore been included in Volume II. of this work.

The Automobile Engineer should have a good working knowledge of thermodynamics, mechanics, chemistry, electricity and mathematics, in order that he may intelligently carry out his work. This is often difficult for him to obtain, and although the space available precludes an extensive study of these subjects, the hope is expressed that the information contained in this volume will materially assist him in understanding the principles of Motor Car construction.

The Author is indebted, in several instances, to the descriptive matter contained in the booklets issued by the Manufacturers of certain Specialties, for the descriptions which appear in the text.


Introduction 1


The General Principles and Construction of the Petrol Engine 5

The Four-stroke Engine — The Two -stroke Engine- Crankcase Induction — Separate Cylinder Induction — The Cooper Engine — Desaxe Engines — En-bloc Systems.


Details of Engine Construction 16

Pistons — Methods of securing the Gudgeon Pin — Connecting Rods — Crankshaft— Arrangement of Cranks — Balance — Fly- wheels — Cylinders — Valves and Valve Gears — The Poppet Valve — Arrangements of Valve Gears— Operating Gear — Valve Tappets— Crossley, Wolseley and Napier Valve Tappets — Valve Setting — Sleeve, Piston and Rotary Valves —The Knight Engine —The Bingham Engine — The Hewitt Engine.


Petrol 43

The Suitability of Petrol as a Fuel — Physical Properties of Petrol— Source from whence obtained — Distillation — Composition - Volatility of a Fuel — Baillee's Test Apparatus for Liquid Fuels - Specific Gravity — Boiling Point — Calorific Value — Darling Calorimeter — Air required for Combustion.


Fuels other than Petrol 08

Importance of a Good Fuel — Fuel Oil— Paraffin or Kerosene — Alcohol — Conclusion of the United States Board of Agriculture on the use of Alcohol — Benzol - Shale Naphtha - - Acetylene - - Alkoe thine.



Carburetters and Carburation 69

The Function of a Carburetter — Types of Carburetters — Floats — Petrol Fuel Systems — Carburation — Mixture Strengths — Influence of Shape of Induction Pipes — Adjustment of Carburetter — The Lanchester Wick Carburetter — The Claudel-Hobson Carburetter— The Scott-Robinson Carburetter — The Longuemare Carburetter— The Trier and Martin Carburetter — The Brown and Barlow Carburetter — The Polyrhoe Carburetter.


Thermodynamics of the Petrol Engine 93

Fundamental Laws and Definitions — Units of Heat — Specific Heat — Boyle's Law — Charles Law — Isothermal Expansion — Adiabatic Expansion — The Value of n — To Determine the Value of n — Temperature in Adiabatic Expansion and Compression — Combustion.


Horse-power 103

What is Horse-power ? — Indicated Horse-power — Mclnnes- Dobbie Indicator — Hopkinson Flashlight Indicator — Mean Effective Pressure — Brake Horse -power — Rope Brake — Heenan and Froude Water Dynamometer — Fan Dynamometer — Electrical Brake — Horse -power under R.A.O. Rating — Horse-power at Road Wheels.


Mechanical, Thermal and Combustion Efficiencies . . .120

Efficiency — Combustion Efficiency — Thermal Efficiency — Air Standard Efficiency — Relative Efficiency — Mechanical Efficiency.


The Principles and Construction of Coil and Accumulator

Ignition 126

Early Forms of Ignition — Electric Ignition — Electromotive Force — Electrolysis — Dry Cells and Accumulators — Leclanche Cell — Dry Cells — Polarisation — Accumulators or Storage Cells — Pasted Plates — Capacity of Accumulators — Methods of Recharging Accummulators — To Find the Number of Lamps required, etc. — High and Low-tension Electricity — Low-tension Spark — High-tension Spark — The Trembler Coil — Action of Trembler Coil — The Effect of a Condenser — Coil and Accumulator Wiring — Commutators — E.I.C. Contact-breaker — Simms H.T. Distributor — Sparking Plugs — Double Pole Plugs — Order of Firing — Lodge Igniter.


Magneto Ignition 164

Magneto Ignition — Construction of the Magneto — Generation of Current — Low-tension Magneto Ignition — Magnetic Ignition — Bosch Magnetic Igniter — FuUer High-tension Magneto — Bosch High-tension Magneto — Mea High-tension Magneto — Eisemann High-tension Magneto with Automatic Advance — Dual Ignition— Fuller Dual System — Bosch Dual System— Simms Dual System (Type A)— Hall Dual System— C. A. V. Dual System— Simms Dual System (Type S) — Bosch Duplex Ignition.


Engine Control Systems 193

Need for Simplicity — Automatic and Mechanical Control — Governors — Extra Air — Ignition — Methods of Control — The Accelerator Pedal— The Main Throttle — A Desirable Control.


Engine Cooling Systems 202

Necessity for a Cooling System — Overheating — Air Cooling — Water Cooling — Forced Circulation — Thermo-syph on —Pumps — Honeycomb Gilled Tube and Straight Tube Radiators — Position of Radiator — Fans.


Crank Effort Diagrams 212

Variation in the Turning Eifort on the Shaft — Variation in the Angular Speed of Crank — Piston Velocity Diagram — Acceleration— Klein's Construction — Crank Effort — Maximum to Mean Crank Effort — Fluctuation of Energy.


Clutches and Brakes 221

Use of Clutch — Requirements which a good Clutch should Fulfil— Types of Clutches — Cone Clutch — Reversed Clutch — Double- cone Clutch — Crossley Expanding Clutch — Deasy Plate Clutch — Multiple Disc Clutch — Hele-Shaw Clutch — Argyll Clutch— Armstrong-Whitworth Clutch — Lanchester Clutch and Brake — Sheffield Simplex Clutch — Wolseley Clutch — Brakes — Brake Requirements — Types of Brakes — Armstrong-Whitworth Brakes— Wolseley Foot Brake — Napier Brakes — Sheffield Simplex Brake — Front-wheel Brakes — Crossley Front- wheel Brakes — Arrol- Johnston Front-wheel Brakes — Adams' Front- wheel Brakes.


Change-speed Gears 251

Why a Gearbox is Necessary — Position of Gearbox — Suspension of Gearbox — Number of Speeds — Which Speed should be Direct — Types of Gears — Gate Change —Armstrong- Whitworth, Deasy, Wolseley, and Austin Gearboxes — Napier Gearboxes — Epicyclic Gears — Adams Planetary Gearbox — Forms of Teeth — Miscellaneous Gears.


Transmission Gear 271

Methods of Drive — Central Chains — Side Chains — Propeller- shaft and Live Axle — Universal Joints — Differential Gear- -Action of the Differential — Bevel-wheel Drive- -Worm Drive — Live Axles and Casings — Ratio of Engine Revolutions to Revolutions of Road Wheels.


Steering Gears 288

Ackermaim Gear — Jeantaud-Ackermann Gear — Other Forms of Steering Gear — Steering Axles and Pivots — Steering Columns— Steering Connections.


Lubricants, Lubrication, Ball and Roller Bearings . . 301

Importance of Efficient Lubrication -Lubricating Oils — Action of Lubricating Oil — Requirements which a good Lubricating Oil should Fulfil — Flash-point — Gray's Flash -point Apparatus —Cold Test — Burning Test — Fire Test — Redwood's Viscometer — Gearbox Lubricants— Chassis Lubrication — Engine Lubricating Systems — Splash Lubrication — Trough Lubrication —Forced Lubrication — Armstrong- Whitworth System— Crossley System — Napier System— Wolseley System — Austin System -Oil Pumps — Ball and Roller Bearings.


Chassis Construction 325

Chassis Frame Requirements— Frame Construction — Methods of Resisting the Distortion of Framing -Suspension of the Engine and Gearbox — Springs -Shock Absorbers Torque Rods and Tubes— Radius Rods — Fixed Axles — Wheels.



General Principles of the Steam Car 347

Essential Parts of the Steam Power Unit -The Generation of Steam — Sensible Heat -Latent Heat — Total Heat of Steam — Dry Saturated Steam — Wet Steam — Superheated Steam— Cycle of Operations in a Steam Engine — Clearance— Ratio of Expansion — Object of Superheating — Use of Condenser — Compound Engines— Feed Heaters.


Steam Engines and Condensers 359

Single-acting and Double-acting Engines — The Cylinder— The Operation of the Flat or D Valve — Lap and Lead —Steam Inside or Outside the Valve- -Piston Valves — Poppet Valves — Comparison of Different Kinds of Valves — Valve Gears — Stephenson's Link Motion — Joy's Valve Gear — The White Engine — The Stanley Engine — The Turner Engine —Condensers.


Steam Generators and Pipe Diagrams 375

General Considerations — Tubular Boilers — Fire Tube— Water Tube— Flash Boilers— White Boiler- White Burner -White Water System — White Steam System— White Fuel System — White Con- trol — Stanley Fire -tube Boiler —Stanley Water Indicator — Stanley Burner — Stanley Water System — Stanley Steam System — Stanley Fuel System — Stanley Fuel Control — Turner Boiler — Turner Water System — Turner Steam System — Turner Fuel System — Turner Control.


The Electric Car 392

Principal Parts of an Electric Car— Suspension of Motors — Battery — Motors— Series, Shunt and Compound-wound Motors — Shunt- wound Motor used for Charging Battery when descending Hills — Controller — How Variations of Speed are Obtained.

Materials used in Motor Car Construction . . . .402
Syllabus of City and Guilds of London Institute in Motor

Car Engineering 404

Examination Papers 408

Physical Properties of Petrols 421

Mathematical Tables and Constants 426