### Minor Losses Fluid Flow Equation

Minor Losses Fluid Flow Equation | Minor Loss in Pipe or Duct Components

The losses that occur in pipelines due to bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called minor losses. This is a misnomer because in many cases these losses are more important than the losses due to pipe friction, considered in the preceding section. For all minor losses in turbulent flow, the head loss varies as the square of the velocity. Thus a convenient method of expressing the minor losses in flow is by means of a loss coefficient (K).

Values of the loss coefficient (K) for typical situations and fittings is found in standard handbooks. The form of Darcys equation used to calculate minor losses of individual fluid system components is expressed by Equation 3-15.

hm = K (V2/2g)

Where:

g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.174 ft/s 2 = 9.806 m/s 2 .
hm = head loss due to a fitting and has units of ft or m of fluid. It is the energy loss due to a fitting per unit weight of fluid.
K = minor loss coefficient for valves, bends, tees, and other fittings - table of minor loss coefficients .

The minor loss calculation is valid for open channels (including partially full culverts) as well as closed conduits (circular or non-circular) flowing full. The minor loss calculation does not check for unreasonable inputs such as negative values. All values should be entered as positive.

 Liquid Temperature Kinematic Viscosity °F °c °K CentiStokes m2/sec ft2/sec Enter For Conversion Acetic acid - vinegar 59.00 15.00 288.15 1.350 1.3500e-006 1.4531e-005 Acetone 68.00 20.00 293.15 0.410 4.1000e-007 4.4132e-006 Alcohol - allyl 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.600 1.6000e-006 1.7222e-005 104.00 40.00 313.15 0.900 9.0000e-007 9.6875e-006 Alcohol - butyl-n 68.00 20.00 293.15 3.640 3.6400e-006 3.9181e-005 Alcohol - ethyl (grain) 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.520 1.5200e-006 1.6361e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 1.200 1.2000e-006 1.2917e-005 Alcohol - methyl (wood) 59.00 15.00 288.15 0.740 7.4000e-007 7.9653e-006 32.00 0.00 273.15 1.040 1.0400e-006 1.1194e-005 Alcohol - propyl 68.00 20.00 293.15 2.800 2.8000e-006 3.0139e-005 122.00 50.00 323.15 1.400 1.4000e-006 1.5069e-005 Ammonia 0.00 -17.78 255.37 0.300 3.0000e-007 3.2292e-006 Asphalt RC-0, MC-0, SC-0 77.00 25.00 298.15 250.000 2.5000e-004 2.6910e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 90.000 9.0000e-005 9.6875e-004 Beer 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.800 1.8000e-006 1.9375e-005 Castor oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 292.000 2.9200e-004 3.1431e-003 130.00 54.44 327.59 114.000 1.1400e-004 1.2271e-003 China wood oil 69.00 20.56 293.71 308.000 3.0800e-004 3.3153e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 126.000 1.2600e-004 1.3563e-003 Coconut oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 30.000 3.0000e-005 3.2292e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 15.200 1.5200e-005 1.6361e-004 Cod oil (fish oil) 100.00 37.78 310.93 32.000 3.2000e-005 3.4445e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 19.500 1.9500e-005 2.0990e-004 Corn oil 130.00 54.44 327.59 28.800 2.8800e-005 3.1000e-004 212.00 100.00 373.15 8.600 8.6000e-006 9.2570e-005 Corn starch solution, 22 70.00 21.11 294.26 32.000 3.2000e-005 3.4445e-004 100.00 37.78 310.93 27.500 2.7500e-005 2.9601e-004 Corn starch solution, 24 70.00 21.11 294.26 130.000 1.3000e-004 1.3993e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 95.200 9.5200e-005 1.0247e-003 Corn starch solution, 25 70.00 21.11 294.26 303.000 3.0300e-004 3.2615e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 173.000 1.7300e-004 1.8622e-003 Cotton seed oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 37.900 3.7900e-005 4.0795e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 20.600 2.0600e-005 2.2174e-004 Crankcase oil SAE 10W 0.00 -17.78 255.37 1295.000 1.2950e-003 1.3939e-002 Crankcase oil SAE 10W 0.00 -17.78 255.37 1945.000 1.9450e-003 2.0936e-002 Crankcase oil SAE 20W 0.00 -17.78 255.37 6300.000 6.3000e-003 6.7813e-002 Crankcase oil SAE 20 210.00 98.89 372.04 7.650 7.6500e-006 8.2344e-005 Crankcase oil SAE 30 210.00 98.89 372.04 11.300 1.1300e-005 1.2163e-004 Crankcase oil SAE 40 210.00 98.89 372.04 14.850 1.4850e-005 1.5984e-004 Crankcase oil SAE 50 210.00 98.89 372.04 19.800 1.9800e-005 2.1313e-004 Crude oil 48 o API 60.00 15.56 288.71 3.800 3.8000e-006 4.0903e-005 130.00 54.44 327.59 1.600 1.6000e-006 1.7222e-005 Crude oil 40 o API 60.00 15.56 288.71 9.700 9.7000e-006 1.0441e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 3.500 3.5000e-006 3.7674e-005 Crude oil 35.6 o API 60.00 15.56 288.71 17.800 1.7800e-005 1.9160e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 4.900 4.9000e-006 5.2743e-005 Crude oil 32.6 o API 60.00 15.56 288.71 23.200 2.3200e-005 2.4972e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 7.100 7.1000e-006 7.6424e-005 Diesel fuel 2D 100.00 37.78 310.93 2 - 6 4.1676e-002 4.4860e-001 130.00 54.44 327.59 2.5 2.5000e-006 2.6910e-005 Diesel fuel 3D 100.00 37.78 310.93 8.88 8.8800e-006 9.5584e-005 130.00 54.44 327.59 5.4 5.4000e-006 5.8125e-005 Diesel fuel 4D 100.00 37.78 310.93 28.6 2.8600e-005 3.0785e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 12.8 1.2800e-005 1.3778e-004 Diesel fuel 5D 122.00 50.00 323.15 85.1 8.5100e-005 9.1601e-004 161.00 71.67 344.82 34.6 3.4600e-005 3.7243e-004 Ethylene glycol (Anti Freeze) 70.00 21.11 294.26 17.800 1.7800e-005 1.9160e-004 Refrigerant -11 70.00 21.11 294.26 0.210 2.1000e-007 2.2604e-006 Refrigerant -12 70.00 21.11 294.26 0.270 2.7000e-007 2.9063e-006 Refrigerant -21 70.00 21.11 294.26 1.450 1.4500e-006 1.5608e-005 Fuel oil 1 70.00 21.11 294.26 3.3 3.3000e-006 3.5521e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 2.69 2.6900e-006 2.8955e-005 Fuel oil 2 70.00 21.11 294.26 5.2 5.2000e-006 5.5972e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 3.2 3.2000e-006 3.4445e-005 Fuel oil 3 70.00 21.11 294.26 4.3 4.3000e-006 4.6285e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 3 3.0000e-006 3.2292e-005 Fuel oil 5A 70.00 21.11 294.26 16.9 1.6900e-005 1.8191e-004 100.00 37.78 310.93 9.3 9.3000e-006 1.0010e-004 Fuel oil 5B 70.00 21.11 294.26 26.4 2.6400e-005 2.8417e-004 100.00 37.78 310.93 40.3 4.0300e-005 4.3379e-004 Fuel oil 6 122.00 50.00 323.15 378 3.7800e-004 4.0688e-003 160.00 71.11 344.26 104 1.0400e-004 1.1194e-003 Gas oils 70.00 21.11 294.26 13.900 1.3900e-005 1.4962e-004 100.00 37.78 310.93 7.400 7.4000e-006 7.9653e-005 Gasoline a 60.00 15.56 288.71 0.880 8.8000e-007 9.4722e-006 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.710 7.1000e-007 7.6424e-006 Gasoline b 60.00 15.56 288.71 0.640 6.4000e-007 6.8889e-006 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.550 5.5000e-007 5.9202e-006 Gasoline c 60.00 15.56 288.71 0.460 4.6000e-007 4.9514e-006 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.400 4.0000e-007 4.3056e-006 Gear oil SAE 75W 210.00 98.89 372.04 4.200 4.2000e-006 4.5208e-005 Gear oil SAE 80W 210.00 98.89 372.04 7.000 7.0000e-006 7.5347e-005 Gear oil SAE 85W 210.00 98.89 372.04 11.000 1.1000e-005 1.1840e-004 Gear oil SAE 90W 210.00 98.89 372.04 20.000 2.0000e-005 2.1528e-004 Gear oil SAE 140 210.00 98.89 372.04 36.000 3.6000e-005 3.8750e-004 Gear oil SAE150 210.00 98.89 372.04 43.000 4.3000e-005 4.6285e-004 Glycol 68.00 20.00 293.15 52.000 5.2000e-005 5.5972e-004 Honey 100.00 37.78 310.93 73.600 7.3600e-005 7.9222e-004 Ink, printers 100.00 37.78 310.93 1100.000 1.1000e-003 1.1840e-002 130.00 54.44 327.59 432.000 4.3200e-004 4.6500e-003 Insulating oil 70.00 21.11 294.26 24.100 2.4100e-005 2.5941e-004 100.00 37.78 310.93 11.750 1.1750e-005 1.2648e-004 Kerosene 68.00 20.00 293.15 2.710 2.7100e-006 2.9170e-005 Jet Fuel -30.00 -34.44 238.71 7.900 7.9000e-006 8.5035e-005 Lard 100.00 37.78 310.93 62.100 6.2100e-005 6.6844e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 34.300 3.4300e-005 3.6920e-004 Lard oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 43.000 4.3000e-005 4.6285e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 25.000 2.5000e-005 2.6910e-004 Linseed oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 30.500 3.0500e-005 3.2830e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 19.000 1.9000e-005 2.0451e-004 Mercury 70.00 21.11 294.26 0.118 1.1800e-007 1.2701e-006 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.110 1.1000e-007 1.1840e-006 Menhaden oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 29.800 2.9800e-005 3.2076e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 18.200 1.8200e-005 1.9590e-004 Milk 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.130 1.1300e-006 1.2163e-005 Molasses A, first 100.00 37.78 310.93 1300.000 1.3000e-003 1.3993e-002 130.00 54.44 327.59 900.000 9.0000e-004 9.6875e-003 Molasses B, second 100.00 37.78 310.93 6200.000 6.2000e-003 6.6736e-002 130.00 54.44 327.59 2300.000 2.3000e-003 2.4757e-002 Molasses C, blackstrap 100.00 37.78 310.93 15000.000 1.5000e-002 1.6146e-001 130.00 54.44 327.59 8150.000 8.1500e-003 8.7726e-002 Naphthalene 176.00 80.00 353.15 0.900 9.0000e-007 9.6875e-006 212.00 100.00 373.15 0.800 8.0000e-007 8.6111e-006 Neatstool oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 49.700 4.9700e-005 5.3497e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 27.500 2.7500e-005 2.9601e-004 Nonane-n 0.00 -17.78 255.37 1.728 1.7280e-006 1.8600e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.807 8.0700e-007 8.6865e-006 Octane-n 0.00 -17.78 255.37 1.267 1.2670e-006 1.3638e-005 100.00 37.78 310.93 0.650 6.5000e-007 6.9965e-006 Olive oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 43.200 4.3200e-005 4.6500e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 24.100 2.4100e-005 2.5941e-004 Palms oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 47.800 4.7800e-005 5.1451e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 26.400 2.6400e-005 2.8417e-004 Peanut oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 42.000 4.2000e-005 4.5208e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 23.400 2.3400e-005 2.5188e-004 Petroleum ether 60.00 15.56 288.71 26.000 2.6000e-005 2.7986e-004 Propylene glycol 70.00 21.11 294.26 52.000 5.2000e-005 5.5972e-004 Quenching oil (typical) 68.00 20.00 293.15 110.000 1.1000e-004 1.1840e-003 Rosin oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 324.700 3.2470e-004 3.4950e-003 130.00 54.44 327.59 130.000 1.3000e-004 1.3993e-003 Rosin (wood) 100.00 37.78 310.93 5640.000 5.6400e-003 6.0708e-002 200.00 93.33 366.48 3210.000 3.2100e-003 3.4552e-002 Sesame seed oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 39.600 3.9600e-005 4.2625e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 23.000 2.3000e-005 2.4757e-004 Sulphuric acid 68.00 20.00 293.15 14.600 1.4600e-005 1.5715e-004 140.00 60.00 333.15 7.000 7.0000e-006 7.5347e-005 Tar, coke oven 70.00 21.11 294.26 1150.000 1.1500e-003 1.2378e-002 100.00 37.78 310.93 255.000 2.5500e-004 2.7448e-003 Tar, pine 70.00 21.11 294.26 559.000 5.5900e-004 6.0170e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 108.000 1.0800e-004 1.1625e-003 Toluene 68.00 20.00 293.15 0.680 6.8000e-007 7.3195e-006 140.00 60.00 333.15 0.380 3.8000e-007 4.0903e-006 Turpentine 100.00 37.78 310.93 90.800 9.0800e-005 9.7736e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 42.100 4.2100e-005 4.5316e-004 Varnish, spar 68.00 20.00 293.15 313.000 3.1300e-004 3.3691e-003 100.00 37.78 310.93 143.000 1.4300e-004 1.5392e-003 Water, distilled 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.004 1.0038e-006 1.0805e-005 Water, fresh 60.00 15.56 288.71 1.130 1.1300e-006 1.2163e-005 130.00 54.44 327.59 0.560 5.6000e-007 6.0278e-006 Water, sea 68.00 20.00 293.15 1.150 1.1500e-006 1.2378e-005 Whale oil 100.00 37.78 310.93 37.000 3.7000e-005 3.9826e-004 130.00 54.44 327.59 21.600 2.1600e-005 2.3250e-004 Xylene-o 68.00 20.00 293.15 0.930 9.3000e-007 1.0010e-005 104.00 40.00 313.15 0.623 6.2300e-007 6.7059e-006

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