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High Vacuum Technology

Engineering Fluids Design

High Vacuum Technology
L. Ward
J.P. Bunn
232 Pages

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High Vacuum Technology


In preparing this book we have attempted to present a general survey of the problems, the basic science and the technology involved in the production of vacuum. The emphasis has been placed on the underlying physical principles rather than on detailed discussions of specialized items of equipment. We have tried to indicate the general lines upon which vacuum technology seems to be developing but it has not been our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the latest research.

The first two chapters are devoted to fundamental properties of gases and vapors and their flow behavior. Then follow chapters on the basic components of vacuum systems, including pumps, gauges, couplings and valves. The use of basic concepts and of the components is then illustrated in chapters dealing with the design, construction, operation and leak testing of practical systems. In the final chapter brief surveys are given of some of the fields of application. These are not intended to be exhaustive but to demonstrate further the way in which fundamental ideas are applied in practice. The subject of ultra-high vacuum has not been presented as a separate topic but as a logical development of high vacuum technique since, although there are many practical refinements, the same basic principles are applicable.

It is hoped that this book will provide a suitable background for both graduates and undergraduates in Universities and Technical Colleges, and also an adequate introduction for industrial and laboratory workers faced with their first experience of high vacuum. In addition the more experienced worker should gain a greater understanding of the techniques and equipment which he uses.

It would be impossible to acknowledge all those who have given us help in preparing this book but, in addition to those specifically acknowledged in the text, we would express our gratitude to MuUard Ltd., British Lighting Industries, and Imperial Metal Industries Ltd. for their assistance in preparing various sections of Chapter 8; to Edwards High Vacuum Ltd., Birvac Ltd., Genevac Ltd. and Leybold's Nachfolger from whose technical literature we have obtained data and the bases of many diagrams; to our publishers who have given us patient and understanding assistance.

Finally, we extend our apologies to any whose work we have quoted or used and inadvertently failed to acknowledge.


Preface .......... v
1 Basic Vacuum Concepts ...... 1
2 Theory of Gaseous Flow ...... 24
3 The Production of Vacuum . . . . .37
4 Measurement of Low Pressure . . . . .71
5 The Construction of Vacuum Systems . . . .111
6 The Operation and Design of Vacuum Systems . .134
7 Leaks AND Leak Detection . . . . .158
8 Some Applications of Vacuum Technique . . . 170
List of Principal Symbols ...... 207
Index 211