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API Tubing Grade & Specifications

Fluids Engineering Data

API Tubing Grade & Specifications 

The following guidelines apply to the use of API tubing grades. 

  • H40: Although an API grade, H40 is generally not used in tubing sizes because the yield strength is relatively low and the cost saving over J55 is minimal. Suppliers do not commonly stock this grade. 
  • J55: A commonly used grade for most wells when it meets the design criteria. Some operators recommend it be full-length normalized or normalized and tempered after upsetting when used in carbon dioxide or sour service (ring-worm corrosion problems); however, such heat treatments increase costs. J55 has been the "standard" grade for tubing in most relatively shallow (< 9,000 ft) and low-pressure (< 4,000 psi) wells on land. 
  • C75: No longer an official API grade and generally not available. It was developed as a higher-strength material for sour service but was replaced by L80 tubing. 
  • N80: A relatively old grade with essentially open chemical requirements. It is susceptible to H 2 S-induced SSC (acronym). It is acceptable for sweet oil and gas wells when it meets design conditions. The quenched-and-tempered heat treatment is preferred. The N80 grade is normally less expensive than L80 grades. 
  • L80: A restricted yield-tubing grade that is available in Type 1, 9 Cr, or 13 Cr. Type 1 is less expensive than 9 Cr and 13 Cr but more subject to weight-loss corrosion. L80 Type 1 is used commonly in many oil and gas fields because of higher strength than J55. L80 is satisfactory for SSC resistance in all conditions but may incur weight-loss corrosion. Though popular in the past for CO2 - and mild H 2 S-contaminated wells, Type 9 Cr largely has been replaced by Type 13 Cr. L80 13 Cr tubing has gained popularity because it has good CO2 -induced weight-loss corrosion resistance properties; however, it is more costly. Type 13 Cr may not be suitable in sour service environments. Typically, the H 2 S partial pressure should be less than 1.5 psi for safe use of L80 Type 13 Cr. The user should consult National Assn. of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) MR-01-75 . 
  • C90: A relatively new API grade with two different chemical requirements: Type 1 and Type 2. Only Type 1 is recommended for use in sour service. Typically, this grade must be special ordered; its use has been generally supplanted by T95. 
  • T95: A high-strength tubular grade that has different chemical requirements: Type 1 and Type 2. Only Type 1 is recommended for sour service. T95 is SSC resistant but not weight-loss resistant. 
  • P110: The old P105 tubing grade, which allowed a normalized and tempered heat treatment, was discontinued, and the casing P110 grade, which is restricted to quench-and-tempered heat treatment, was adopted. This high-strength tubing typically is used in deep sweet oil and gas wells with high pressures. This grade is sensitive to SSC failures unless the temperatures are relatively high (> 175°F). The P110 grade is slightly more expensive than L80 Type 1 but usually less expensive than the C90 and T95 API restricted-yield grades. 
  • Q125: Although not a specific API tubing grade, users can order Q125 API tubing. Type 1 chemistry is preferred. 

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