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Air Resistance Force Equation and Calculator.

Air Resistance Force to Vehicle Forward Motion Equation and Calculator.

A vehicle can move along only if the sum of all resistances is overcome. Resistances are forces that either balance out the driving force (uniform movement) or are smaller than the driving force (accelerated movement).

FL = 0.6 · cW · A · v2

Where:

FL = Air resistance force, (N)
cW = Drag coefficient
A = Frontal area (m2)
v = Air velocity relative to object (m/s)

 Air Drag Coefficient Vehicle or Object 0.001 laminar flat plate parallel to the flow 0.005 turbulent flat plate parallel to the flow 0.075 Pac-car 0.076 Milan SL 0.1 smooth sphere 0.47 smooth sphere 0.14 Fiat Turbina 1954 0.15 Schlörwagen 1939 0.18 Mercedes-Benz T80 1939 0.186-0.189 Volkswagen XL1 2014 0.19 General Motors EV1 1996 0.212 Tatra 77A 1935 0.23 Tesla Model 3, Audi A4 B9 (2016) 0.235 Renault Eolab 0.24 Hyundai Ioniq 0.24 Tesla Model S 0.24 Toyota Prius (4th Generation) 0.25 Toyota Prius (3rd Generation) 0.26 BMW i8 0.26 Nissan GT-R (2011-2014) 0.27 BMW E39 5 Series (1995-2003, Germany) 0.27 Nissan GT-R (2007-2010) 0.27 Chrysler 200 (2015-2017) 0.28 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona 1970 Plymouth Superbird 0.28 1986 Opel Omega saloon. 0.28 Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class Type C 117. 0.29 Mazda3 (2007) 0.295 bullet (not ogive , at subsonic velocity) 0.3 Saab 92 (1949), Audi 100 C3 (1982) 0.31 Maserati Ghibli Sedan (2014) 0.324 Ford Focus Mk2/2.5 (2004-2011, Europe) 0.33 BMW E30 3 Series (1984-1993, Germany) 0.35 Maserati Quattroporte V (M139, 2003–2012) 0.36 Citroen CX (1974-1991, France), Tesla Semi (2017, United States of America) 0.37 Ford Transit Custom Mk8 (2013, Turkey) 0.48 rough sphere 0.58 Jeep Wrangler TJ (1997-2005) 0.75 a typical model rocket 1.0 coffee filter, face-up 1.0 road bicycle plus cyclist, touring position 1.0–1.1 skier 1.0–1.3 wires and cables 1.0–1.3 man (upright position) 1.1-1.3 ski jumper 1.2 Usain Bolt 1.28 flat plate perpendicular to flow (3D) 1.3–1.5 Empire State Building 1.4 Formula 1 Race Car 1.8–2.0 Eiffel Tower 1.98–2.05 flat plate perpendicular to flow (2D) Air Drag Coefficient Shape object 0.47 Sphere 0.42 Half sphere 0.5 Cone 1.05 Cube 0.80 Angled cube 0.82 Long cylinder 1.15 Short cylinder 0.04 Streamlined body 0.09 Streamlined half-body