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Fiberglass Reinforced Thermoplastics Engineering Design Handbook

Electrical, Instrumentation, Electronic Design and Engineering

Fiberglass Reinforced Thermoplastics Engineering Design Handbook
Ms. Joan B. Titus
Plastics Technical Evaluation Center (PLASTEC)
486 Pages

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Open: Fiberglass Reinforced Thermoplastics Engineering Design Handbook

Preface

This handbook provides information related principally to families of thermoplastics reinforced with strand "E" glass. The handbook content, while limited to molding materials, advises the reader that other forms of thermoplastic materials such as foams and elastomers are also glass reinforced.

The handbook features the relationships between the GRTP's and their properties the relationships are displayed both in tabular form and graphically. The influence of composite variables volume of glass fiberglass strand solids and bundle size; glass filament diameter, length, and orientation on properties are similarly displayed.

Another unique feature of the handbook is the manner in which the polymers and their associated properties are presented. In one breakout, the GRTP's are displayed as the independent variable; in a second breakout, the properties are displayed as the independent variable.

TOC

CHAPTER 1. FNTRODUCTION
1-1 Definitions 1-1
1-1.1 Composite 1-1
1-1.2 Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) 1-1
1-1.2.1 Resins 1-1
1-1.2.2 Fiberglass Type and Form 1-1
1-1.2.3 Processes 1-1
1-2 Scope 1-2
1-3 History of Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastics (GRTP) 1-2
1-4 Mechanisms of Composites 1-3
1-5 Properties of Composites 1-4
1-6 Processing Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastics 1-4
1-7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastic Materials 1-4
1-7.1 Advantages 1-4
1-7.2 Disadvantages 1-5
References 1.-5

CHAPTER 2. GLASS FIBER REFNFORCEMENT
2-1 Introduction 2-1
2-2 Types of Glass Fiber Reinforcements 2-2
2-3 Glass Surface Treatment and Interface 2-4
2-3.1 Coupling Agents 2-5
2-3.1.1 Inorganic Reactivity 2-5
2-3.1.2 Organic Reactivity 2-5
2-3.1.3 Improved Coupling Agents for GRTP's 2-6
2-4 Mechanics of Load Transfer at the Interface 2-10
2-4.1 Mechanistic Models for Load Transfer at the Interface 2-10
2-4.2 Methods for Measuring Interfacial Bond Strength 2-12
2-4.3 Fracture Morphology and Interfacial Bond Strength .... 2-13
2-4.4 Methods for Predicting Stress at the Interface 2-14
2-4.5 Micro residual Stress Effects on Interfacial Bond Strengths 2-14
2-4.6 Effects of Voids and Environment on Interfacial Bond Strength 2-16
2-5 Glass Fiber Reinforcement Theory 2-16
2-5.1 Continuous Fiber Reinforcement 2-16
2-5.2 Discontinuous Fiber Reinforcement 2-17
2-5.3 Effect of Composite Variables on Performance 2-18
2-5.3.1 Volume of Glass Fiber 2-20
2-5.3.2 Glass Strand Solids 2-21
2-5.3.3 Glass Strand Bundle Size 2-23
2-5.3.4 Glass Filament Diameter 2-25
2-5.3.5 Glass Fiber Length 2-27
2-5.3.6 Glass Fiber Orientation 2-27
2-5.3.7 Thermoplastic Matrix Properties 2-29
2-6 Effect of Processing Characteristics on Composites 2-32
2-6.1 Mixing Time 2-32
2-6.2 Screw Speed and Back Pressure 2-32
2-7 Compounding 2-35
2-7.1 Compounding Processes 2-36
2-7.1.1 Direct Compounding in an Injection Machine 2-36
2-7.1.2 Compounding Preblended Material 2-36
2-7.1.3 Compounding Glass/Polymer Pellets 2-37
2-71.3.1 Discontinuous Method 2-37
2-71.3.2 Continuous Method 2-38
2-7.2 Extrusion of Glass-Resin Pellets 2-38
2-7.2.1 Single-Screw Extruders 2-38
2-7.2.2 Continuous Mixer Systems 2-39
2-7.2.3 Twin-Screw Extruders 2-39
2-7.2.4 Specially Designed Extruders 2-39
References 2-40

CHAPTER 3. PROPERTY DATA
3-1 Introduction 3-1
3-2 Physical and Mechanical Data 3-1
3-2.1 Specific Gravity (ASTMD792) 3-1
3-2.2 Hardness (ASTMD785 Rockwell and ASTMD2240Durometer) 3-1
3-2.3 Water Absorption (ASTMD570) 3-1
3-2.4 Mold Shrinkage(ASTMD955) 3-2
3-2.5 Strength and Rigidity 3-2
3-2.5.1 Tensile Strength 3-2
3-2.5.2 Flexural Strength (ASTMD790) 3-3
3-2.5,3 Shear Strength (ASTMD732) 3-3
3-2.5.4 Composite Strength 3-3
3-2.5.5 Impact Strength 3-4
3-2.6 Rigidity (ASTMD638andD790) 3-5
3-2.7 Fatigue (ASTM D671) 3-6
3-2.8 Wear, Friction, and Gear Tooth Strength 3-6
3-2.8.1 Limiting Pressure Velocity (LPV) 3-7
3-2.8.2 Coefficient of Friction 3-7
3-2.8.3 Wear 3-8
3-2.8.4 Tooth Strength of Gears 3-10
3-3 Thermal Properties of Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastics 3-10
3-3.1 Thermal Stability 3-11
3-3.2 Thermal Analysis 3-11
3-3.3 Long-Term Thermal Performance 3-12
3-3.3.1 Long-Term Service Temperature (UL Temperature Index) 3-12
3-3.3.2 Thermal Aging 3-13
3-3.4 Deflection Temperature Under Load (DTUL)(ASTMD648) 3-13
3-3.5 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (ASTMD696) 3-14
3-3.6 Flammability 3-14
34 Electrical Property Data 3-15
3-4.1 Volume Resistivity (ASTMD257) 3-15
34.2 Arc Resistance (ASTMD495) 3-15
3-4.3 Dielectric Strength (ASTMD149) 3-15
3-4.4 Dielectric Constant (ASTMD150) 3-16
34.5 Dissipation Factor (ASTMD150) 3-16
3-5 Chemical Resistance of Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastics 3-16
3-5.1 Tensile Strength Loss and Weight Change 3-16
3-5.2 Chemical Resistance 3-17
3-6 Bacterial and Weather Resistance of Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastics 3-18
3-6.1 Weather Resistance 3-18
3-6.2 Microbial and Fungous Resistance 3-19
3-7 Introduction — Glass-Reinforced Thermoplastic Resin Systems 3-19
3-8 Acetals 3-19
3-8.1 General Description 3-19
3-8.2 Property Data 3-19
3-9 Acrylics 3-19
3-9.1 General Description 3-19
3-9.2 Property Data 3-19
3-10 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene -Styrene (ABS) 3-19
3-10.1 General Description 3-19
3-10.2 Property Data 3-19
3-11 Fluoropolymers 3-19
3-11.1 General Description 3-19
3-11.2 Property Data 3-20
3-12 Polyamides (Nylons) 3-20
3-12.1 General Description 3-20
3-12.2 Property Data 3-20
3-13 Polycarbonate 3-20
3-13.1 General Description 3-20
3-13.2 Property Data 3-20
3-14 Polyesters 3-20
3-14.1 General Description 3-20
3-14.2 Property Data 3-20
3-15 Polyethersulfone 3-20
3-15.1 General Description 3-20
3-15.2 Property Data 3-20
3-16 Polyethylene 3-20
3-16.1 General Description 3-20
3-16.2 Property Data 3-21
3-17 Modified Polyphenylene Oxide 3-21
3-17.1 General Description 3-21
3-17.2 Property Data 3-21
3-18 Polyphenylene Sulfide 3-21
3-18.1 General Description ... 3-21
3-18.2 Property Data ... 3-21
3-19 Polypropylene and Polypropylene Copolymers 3-21
3-19.1 General Description 3-21
3-19.2 Property Data 3-21
3-20 Polystyrene 3-21
3-20.1 General Description 3-21
3-20.2 Property Data 3-21
3-21 Polysulfones 3-21
3-21.1 General Description 3-21
3-21.2 Property Data 3-21
3-22 Polyurethane 3-22
3-22.1 General Description 3-22
3-22.2 Property Data 3-22
3-23 Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC) 3-22
3-23.1 General Description 3-22
3-23.2 Property Data 3-22
3-24 Styrene .Acrylonitrile (SAN) 3-22
3-24.1 General Description 3-22
3-24.2 Property Data 3-22
References 3-22

CHAPTER 4. PROCESSING GLASS-REINFORCED THERMOPLASTICS
4-1 Introduction 4-1
4-2 Injection Molding 4-1
4-2.1 Definition 4-1
4-2.2 Injection Molding Machines 4-1
4-2.2.1 Reciprocating Screw Machines 4-2
4-2.2.2 Ram or Plunger Machines 4-2
4-2.2.3 Preplasticizers 4-5
4-2.2.3.1 Screw Design 4-6
4-2.2.3.2 Back Pressure 4-7
4-2.2.3.3 Controls and Instrumentation 4-7
4-2.2.3.4 Valves 4-7
4-2.2.4 Nozzles 4-7
4-2.2.5 Clamping 4-10
4-2.2.6 Ejections systems 4-11
4-2.2.7 Special Injection Molding Machines: Insert Molding. Index and Rotary Machines, and Multicolor Molding 4-11
4-2.3 Automation 4-11
4-2.4 Auxiliary Equipment 4-13
4-2.4.1 Direct Powder Molding 4-13
4-2.4.2 Pellet Blending 4-13
4-2.4.3 Color Blending 4-13
4-2.4.4 Hopper Loaders 4-13
4-2.4.5 Weigh Feeders 4-13
4-2.4.6 Grinders 4-13
4-2.4.7 Dryers 4-14
4-2.4.8 Mold Temperature Regulators 4-14
4-2,5 Injection Molding Parameters 4-14
4-2.5.1 General Purpose Glass-Reinforced Resins 4-14
4-2.5.2 Blending Glass Concentrated Pellets 4-17
4-2.5.3 Special Molding Materials 4-17
4-2.5.4 Safety 4-18
4-2.5.5 Molding Problems 4-18
4-2.6 Machine Wear 4-18
4-3 Solid-Phase Forming and Compression Molding 4-20
4-3.1 Definition 4-20
4-3.2 Glass-Reinforced Materials ...-■■■ 4-20
4-3.3 Forging and Stamping 4-21
4-3.3.1 Forging 4-21
4-3.3.2 Forging Parameters 4-21
4-3.3.2.1 Temperatures 4-21
4-3.3.2.2 Forming Cycle 4-22
4-3.3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 4-22
4-3.3.3.1 Advantages 4-22
4-3.3.3.2 Disadvantages 4-22
4-3.3.4 Tooling 4-22
4-3.3.5 Stamping 4-22
4-3.3.6 Stamping Parameters 4-23
4-3.3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages 4-23
4-3.3.7.1 Advantages 4-23
4-3.3.7.2 Disadvantages 4-23
4-3.4 Compression Molding (Hot Flow Stamping) 4-23
4-3.4.1 Short Flow Forming 4-23
4-3.4.2 Center Flow Forming 4-23
4-3.4.3 Stack Flow Forming 4-24
4-3.4.4 Drape Forming 4-24
4-3.4.5 Advantages and Disadvantages 4-24
4-3.4.5.1 Advantages 4-24
4-3.4.5.2 Disadvantages 4-24
4-3.5 Equipment 4-24
4-3.5.1 Blanking 4-24
4-3.5.2 Heating Ovens 4-25
4-3.5.3 Materials Handling 4-26
4-3.5.4 Dies 4-26
4-3.5.5 Presses 4-26
4-4 Thermoforming 4-27
44.1 Definition 4-27
4-4.2 Materials 4-29
4-4.3 Processing Parameters 4-30
4-4.4 Equipment 4-31
4-4.4.1 Thermoforming Machines 4-31
4-4.4.2 Tooling 4-32
4-4.5 Materials Handling 4-32
4-4.6 Advantages and Disadvantages 4-32
4-4.6.1 Advantages 4-32
44.6.2 Disadvantages 4-32
4-5 Extrusion 4-32
4-5.1 Definition 4-32
4-5.2 Materials 4-33
4-5.3 Equipment 4-33
4-5.3.1 Dryers 4-33
4-5.3.2 Extruder 4-33
4-5.3.2.1 Barrel 4-33
4-5.3.2.2 Screw Design 4-33
4-5.3.2.3 Drive Train 4-35
4-5.3.2.4 Thrust Bearing 4-35
4-5.3.2.5 Breaker Plates, Valving, and Extrusion Dies 4-35
4-5.3.2.6 Heating and Cooling 4-36
4-5.3.2.7 Instrumentation 4-36
4-5.4 Materials Handling and Auxiliary Equipment 4-36
4-5.5 Advantages and Disadvantages 4-37
4-6 Rotational Molding 4-37
4-6.1 Definition 4-37
4-6.2 Materials 4-37
4-6.3 Process. Equipment and Tooling, and Applications 4-37
4-7 Machining 4-37
4-7.1 Introduction 4-37
4-7.2 Drilling 4-38
4-7.3 Sawing 4-38
4-7.3.1 Circular Sawing 4-38
4-7.3.2 Band Sawing 4-38
4-7.4 Turning 4-39
4-7.5 Cutoff and Face Milling 4-39
4-7.6 Filing 4-39
4-7.7 Threading and Tapping 4-39
4-7.8 Reaming 4-39
4-8 Decorating 4-40
References 4-40

CHAPTER 5. BONDING. JOINING. AND FASTENING
5-1 Introduction 5-1
5-2 Adhesive Bonding 5-1
5-2.1 Definition 5-1
5-2.2 Adhesive Bonding Techniques T 5-2
5-2.2.1 Polyester (Polybutylene-terephthalate) 5-2
5-2.2.2 Polycarbonate 5-3
5-2.2.3 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) 5-3
5-3 Solvent Bonding 5-4
5-3.1 Definition 5-4
5-3.2 General Techniques 5-4
5-4 Induction Bonding 5-5
54.1 Definition 5-5
5-4.2 Bonding Techniques 5-5
5-5 Ultrasonic Welding 5-5
5-5.1 Definition 5-5
5-5.2 Welding Techniques 5-6
5-5.3 Advantages and Disadvantages 5-8
5-6 Hot Plate Welding 5-8
5-6.1 Definition 5-8
5-6.2 Welding Techniques 5-8
5-7 Spin Welding 5-8
5-8 Vibration Welding 5-9
5-9 Hot Gas Welding 5-9
5-10 Mechanical Fastening 5-11
5-10.1 Self-Tapping Screws 5-11
5-10.2 Machine Screws 5-13
5-10.3 Molded inserts 5-15
5-10.4 Press Fit Inserts 5-15
5-10.5 Ultrasonic Inserts 5-16
5-10.6 Rivets 5-16
5-10.7 Expansion Inserts 5-17
References 5-17

CHAPTER 6. PART DESIGN TECHNIQUES
6-1 Introduction 6-1
6-2 Part Shrinkage. Dimensional Tolerances, and Warpage 6-1
6-3 Draft and Undercuts 6-2
64 Ribs 6-3
6-5 Bosses and Studs 6-3
6-6 Holes 6-5
6-7 Fillets and Radii 6-5
6-8 Wall Thickness 6-5
6-9 Weld and Parting Lines 6-6
6-10 Inserts 6-7
6-11 Joint Design 6-8
6-11.1 Adhesive-and Solvent Cemented Joints 6-9
6-11.2 Ultrasonic Bonding 6-9
6-11.3 Ultrasonic Staking 6-11
6-11.4 Spin Welding 6-11
6-11.5 Vibration Bonding 6-11
6-12 Threads 6-12
6-13 Surface and Finishes 6-13
6-14 Structural Analysis and Safety Factor 6-13
References 6-13

CHAPTER 7. MOLD DESIGN
7-1 Introduction 7-1
7-2 Injection Molds 7-1
7-2.1 Mold Materials 7-1
7-2.2 Mold Components 7-1
7-2.2.1 Cores and Cavities 7-1
7-221.1 Core Pins 7-1
7-2.2.1.2 Collapsing Cores 7-2
7-2.2.2 Mold Plates 7-2
7-2.2.3 Seating Rings and Sprue Bushing 7-3
7-2.2.4 Runner Systems 7-3
7-2.2.4.1 Conventional Runners 7-3
7-2.2.4.2 Hot Runner Molds 7-3
7-2.2.4.3 Insulated Runner Molds 7-5
7-2.2.5 Gates 7-6
7-2.2.6 Vents 7-10
7-2.2.7 Mold Cooling 7-11
7-2.3 Parting Lines 7-12
7-2.4 Types of Molds 7-13
7-2.4.1 Two Plate Molds 7-13
7-2.4.2 Three-Plate Mold 7-13
7-3 Rotational Molds 7-13
7-4 Stamping Molds 7-13
7-4.1 Mold Materials 7-13
7-4.2 Surface Finish 7-14
7-4.3 Part Thicknesses 7-14
7-4.4 Molded-In Holes 7-14
7-4.5 Telescoping Edges 7-16
7-4.6 Heel Boxes 7-16
7.4.7 Stop Blocks 7-16
7-4.8 Venting 7-16
7-4.9 Temperature Control 7-16
7-4.9.1 Heating 7-16
7-4.9.2 Cooling 7-16
7-4.10 Draft 7-18
7-4.11 Ejection systems 7-18
References 7-18

CHAPTER 8. GLASS-REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC APPLICATIONS
8-1 Applications 8-1
8-2 Economics 8-1
8-2.1 Material Costs 8-1
8-2.2 Material Performance 8-3
8-2.3 Processing 8-3
References 8-3

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