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Cement Engineers Handbook

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Cement Engineers Handbook

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Cement Engineers Handbook

Preface

The text for this new edition has been written by a team of experts in their respective fields of specialization relating to cement manufacture and the machinery used at all stages of the process. Some of the chapters have been substantially enlarged and updated from those contained in the earlier editions of the Handbook. A number of new chapters have moreover been added. The entire subject matter has been extensively recast and rearranged, as will be apparent from the comprehensive table of contents. Each chapter is accompanied by a list of literature references enabling the reader to consult more detailed published information on matters of particular interest to him. The names of the authors are
given at the beginning of the chapters.

The following information on the sections and chapters into which the book is divided will help the reader to understand its layout and to use it with greater convenience.

TOC

A. Introduction 1
By B. Kohlhaas
B. Raw materials 3
I. Geology, raw material deposits, requirements applicate to the deposit, exploration of the deposit, boreholes, evaluation of borehole results, calculation of reserves 3
By H.-U. Schafer
1 Raw materials and quarrying methods 4
2 Exploration 6
References 25
II. Quarrying the raw materials 27
By H. Schuberth
1 Guidelines for quarrying 28
2 Overburden 30
3 Breaking out the rock 32
4 Loading 46
5 Haulage 50
6 Mobile crushing plants 55
7 Site restoration 57
References 62
III. Raw materials storage, blending beds, sampling stations 64
By D. Schmidt
1 Introduction 65
2 Bed blending theory 66
3 Machinery and process engineering methods 73
4 Sampling stations 93
References 100
C. Cement chemistry - cement quality 101
By D. Knofel
I. Historical introduction 103
II. Raw materials and the raw mix 105
IX
1 Raw materials 105
2 Raw mix: proportioning and analysis 109
References 119
III. Chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects of the cement burning
process 119
1 Drying 121
2 Dehydration of clay minerals 121
3 Decomposition of carbonates 1 22
4 Solid reactions (reactions below sintering) 123
5 Reactions in the presence of liquid phase (sintering) 123
6 Reactions during cooling 124
7 Factors affecting the burning process 125
References 128
IV. Portland cement clinker 128
1 Clinker phases 128
2 Judging the quality of clinker 133
References 137
V. Finish grinding 137
1 The materials involved in finish grinding 137
2 Fineness and particle size distribution 141
3 Mill atmosphere 142
4 Grinding aids 144
References 145
VI. Storage of cement 1 45
1 Storage in the cement works 145
2 Storage on the construction site 146
References 146
VII. Hydration of cement (setting, hardening, strength) 146
1 General 146
2 Hydration of the clinker phases 149
3 Hydrogen of slag cements and pozzolanic cements 153
References 153
VIM. Relations between chemical reactions, phase content and strength of
Portland cement 153
References 158
IX. Types, strength classes, designation and quality control of cements. 158
1 General 158
2 Classification and designation of cements 160
3 Constituents of cements 1 63
4 Supply and identification of cements 163
5 Quality control 165
6 Suggestions for the use of cements 1 65
References 166
X. Cement testing 166
1 Fineness 167
2 Setting times 1 68
3 Soundness 168
4 Strength 169
5 Heat of hydration 1 69
References 170
Cement Standards 170
References 171
D. Manufacture of cement 177
I. Materials preparation of cement 179
By H. Schneider and U. Binder
1 Primary reduction 179
References 213
2 Size classification 214
References 238
3 Grinding 239
References 266
4 Roller mills 266
References 276
5 Grinding and drying of coal 277
References 293
II. Raw meal silos 295
By H. K. Klein-Albenhausen
1 General 295
2 Batchwise homogenization 295
3 Continuous blending 297
4 Combined systems 304
5 Summary 304
References 305
III. Cement burning technology 307
1 Kiln systems 307
By E. Steinbifc
References 319
2 Preheaters and precalcining 320
By E. SteinbiB
References 326
3 Clinker cooling 328
By H. Xeller
References 417
4 Firing technology 421
By E. SteinbiB
References 440
5 Refractory linings 442
By D. Opitz
References 458
IV. Clinker storage 459
By B. Kohlhaas
1 General 459
2 Forms of construction and space requirements 459
3 Selection criteria 463
4 Design 464
5 Filling and emptying silos and other storage structures 465
6 Storage buildings and outdoor stockpiles 465
References 471
V. Cement silos 472
By H. K. Klein-Albenhausen
1 General 472
2 Large- capacity silos 472
References 476
E. Packing and loading for despatch 477
I. Packing 477
By P. Schwake
1 Introduction 477
2 Types of packaging 478
II. Despatch of cement 490
By E. Bomke and G. Schafer
1 Despatch in sacks 490
2 Bulk loading 495
3 Loading of clinker and crushed stone 503
4 "Big bag" despatch 503
5 Shrink wrapping 506
6 Automation of despatch procedures 512
References 512
F. Handling and feeding systems - Continuous conveyors 515
By F. Mechtold
I. General introduction 515
If. Belt and band conveyors 516
1 Belt conveyors 51
6
2 Steel band conveyors 523
III. Bucket elevators 523
1 General explanation 523
2 Belt bucket elevators 525
3 Chain bucket elevators 529
4 Swing bucket elevators 535
IV. Chain Conveyors 539
1 Flight conveyors 539
2 Continuous-flow conveyors 541
3 Apron conveyors 543
V. Vibratory conveyors 550
VI. Screw conveyors 556
VII. Pneumatic Conveyors 559
VIII. Feeders 570
IX. Weighing equipment 578
References 582
G. Process engineering and automation 585
By G. Schmiedgen
I. General 585
II. Measurement and process control 586
1 Measurement 587
2 Closed loop control 591
III. Programmable controllers 596
IV. Monitoring and operation 600
V. Process computers 605
1 Development and use of process computers 605
2 Computerized control centre 608
3 Hardware and software 612
4 Microprocessors 613
VI. Process control system 614
References 619
H. Environmental protection and industrial safety 621
By G. Funke
I. Environmental protection 622
1 Prevention of air pollution 622
2 Noise control 658
3 Ground vibrations due to blasting 680
References 685
II. Industrial safety 688
1 Accident prevention regulations 688
2 Promotion of safety in cement works 690
3 Safety rules 692
References 693
J. Maintenance and wear 695
By B. Kohlhaas
I. Maintenance 695
1 General 695
2 Spares and renewable parts planning 696
3 Determining the cost of maintenance 697
References 704
II. Problems of wear 705
References 705
K. Workshops and spare parts store 709
By B. Kohlhaas
L. Water supply, compressed air 717
By B. Kohlhaas
I. Water supply for cement works 717
1 Estimated quantities required 717
2 Raw water 719
3 Supply system, cooling water circuit, water storage 720
4 Waste water disposal 722
II. Compressed air supply 722
M. Personnel requirements 725
By B. Kohlhaas
N. Lubricants, storage and consumption 729
By B. Kohlhaas
I. General 729
II. Types of lubricants 730
III. Storage of lubricants 730
1 Delivery and handling 730
2 Storage 734
3 Issue of lubricants to consumers 741
4 Distribution of lubricants to the machines 742
IV. Lubricants consumption 743
References 743
O. Firefighting equipment 744
By B. Kohlhaas
P. Laboratory equipment 749

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