Related Resources: Automation and Manufacturing

Robotics, Designing Mechanisms for Automated Machinery

Engineering Applications and Design
Mechanics and Machines
Manufacturing Engineering

Robotics, Designing the Mechanisms for Automated Machinery
444 Pages

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This book provides information on the stages of machinery design for automated manufacturing and offers a step-by-step process for making it optimal. This is illustrated by numerous examples of technical concepts taken from different manufacturing domains. The author, being a university teacher, sees that teaching curricula and textbooks most often do not provide the answers to the questions: How are things built? How do they work? How does one best approach the design process for a specific machine? Most textbooks emphasize computation theories and techniques and deal less with the physical objects that the theories describe.

During recent years, some new techniques have been developed and put into widespread use. The book thus covers such modern concepts as rapid modeling; automated assembly; parallel-driven robots; and mechatronic systems for reducing dynamic errors of a mechanical link by continuous, close-to-optimal, control of its oscillation parameters by electronic means. The author understands that writing and publishing procedure can involve a time lag between the contents of the book and the real, rapidly developing world. The revised edition of the book is based on an evaluation of both current principles and newly developed concepts.

Some experiments carried out in the laboratory and described here also serve as illustrations for the relevant topics; for instance:

• Automotive mechanical assembly of a product by a manipulator (robot),
• Systems for reducing vibrations,
• Parallel-driven robots.

In this edition, greater use is made of calculation examples. Calculations performed mostly with the help of the MATHEMATICA program have a number of advantages: they are time-saving, are especially useful in solving nonlinear equations, and are capable of providing a graphic display of processes. Problems and solutions are integrated into the text so as to provide a better understanding of the contents by quantitatively illustrating the solutions and procedures. This also helps in solving other problems of a similar nature; it improves and shortens some mathematical deductions; and it contributes greatly to an understanding of the subject. For instance, one can find here:

  • Solutions of essentially nonlinear equations describing the behavior of a piston in pneumatic systems;
  • Equations describing the behavior of a body on a vibrating tray, widely used in, for example, vibrofeeding devices, which can be effectively solved by this computation tool (substituting boring traditional calculations);
  • Description of the behavior of a slider on its guides (a common structure in machinery) when dry friction exists in this pair, resulting in limited accuracy in the slider's displacement;
  • Equations (and an example of a solution) describing the free oscillations of a robot's arm when reaching the destination point. This is important for accuracy and productivity estimations;
  • Solutions of nonlinear equations describing the


1 Introduction: Brief Historical Review and Main Definitions 1
1.1 What Robots Are I
1.2 Definition of Levels or Kinds of Robots 6
1.3 Manipulators 12
1.4 Structure of Automatic Industrial Systems 20
1.5 Nonindustrial Representatives of the Robot Family 26
1.6 Relationship between the Level of Robot "Intelligence" and the Product 34
References 36

2 Concepts and Layouts 37
2.1 Processing Layout 37
2.2 How Does One Find the Concept of an Automatic Manufacturing Process? 45
2.3 How to Determine the Productivity of a Manufacturing Process 50
2.4 The Kinematic Layout 55
2.5 Rapid Prototyping 61

3 Dynamic Analysis of Drives 64
3.1 Mechanically Driven Bodies 64
3.2 Electromagnetic Drive 71
3.3 Electric Drives 75
3.4 Hydraulic Drive 88
3.5 Pneumodrive 91
3.6 Brakes 99
3.7 Drive with a Variable Moment of Inertia 103

4 Kinematics and Control of Automatic Machines 116
4.1 Position Function 116
4.2 Camshafts 123
4.3 Master Controller, Amplifiers 135
4.4 Dynamic Accuracy 148
4.5 Damping of Harmful Vibrations 157
4.6 Automatic Vibration Damping 162
4.7 Electrically Controlled Vibration Dampers 166

5 Feedback Sensors 175
5.1 Linear and Angular Displacement Sensors 175
5.2 Speed and Flow-Rate Sensors 788
5.3 Force Sensors 193
5.4 Temperature Sensors 200
5.5 Item Presence Sensors 202

6 Transporting Devices 206
6.1 General Considerations 206
6.2 Linear Transportation 206
6.3 Rotational Transportation 217
6.4 Vibrational Transportation 223

7 Feeding and Orientation Devices 227
7.1 Introduction 227
7.2 Feeding of Liquid and Granular Materials 228
7.3 Feeding of Strips, Rods, Wires, Ribbons, Etc. 231
7.4 Feeding of Oriented Parts from Magazines 235
7.5 Feeding of Parts from Bins 242
7.6 General Discussion of Orientation of Parts 254
7.7 Passive Orientation 259
7.8 Active Orientation 266
7.9 Logical Orientation 271
7.10 Orientation by Nonmechanical Means 274

8 Functional Systems and Mechanisms 283
8.1 General Concepts 283
8.2 Automatic Assembling 284
8.3 Special Means of Assembly 295
8.4 Inspection Systems 300
8.5 Miscellaneous Mechanisms 307

9 Manipulators 314
9.1 Introduction 314
9.2 Dynamics of Manipulators 315
9.3 Kinematics of Manipulators 326
9.4 Grippers 350
9.5 Guides 358
9.6 Mobile and Walking Robots 372

Solutions to the Exercises 385
Recommended Readings 423
List of Main Symbols 425