Thermal Properties of Metals, Conductivity, Thermal Expansion, Specific Heat

Heat Transfer Engineering and Design
Engineering Metals and Materials
Thermal Conductivity, Heat Transfer Review

Metals in general have high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, and high density. Typically they are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving. In terms of optical properties, metals are shiny and lustrous. Sheets of metal beyond a few micrometres in thickness appear opaque, but gold leaf transmits green light.

Although most metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is wide variation in their densities, Lithium being the least dense solid element and osmium the densest. The alkali and alkaline earth metals in groups I A and II A are referred to as the light metals because they have low density, low hardness, and low melting points. The high density of most metals is due to the tightly packed crystal lattice of the metallic structure. The strength of metallic bonds for different metals reaches a maximum around the center of the transition metal series, as those elements have large amounts of delocalized electrons in tight binding type metallic bonds. However, other factors (such as atomic radius, nuclear charge, number of bonds orbitals, overlap of orbital energies and crystal form) are involved as well.

See conversion formulae at bottom:
Material Thermal Conductivity
Btu / (hr-ft-F)
Density (lbs/in3) Specific Heat
(Btu/lb/F)
Melting Point (F) Latent Heat of Fusion (Btu/lb) Thermal Expansion (in/in/F x 10-6)
Aluminum 136 0.098 0.24 1220 169 13.1
Antimony 120 - - - - -
Brass (Yellow) 69.33 0.306 0.096 1724 - 11.2
Cadmium - - - - - -
Copper 231 0.322 0.095 1976 91.1 9.8
Gold 183 0.698 0.032 1945 29 7.9
Incoloy 800 - 0.29 0.13 2500 - 7.9
Inconel 600 - 0.304 0.126 2500 - 5.8
Iron, Cast 46.33 0.26 0.12 2150 - 6
Lead, solid 20.39 0.41 0.032 621 11.3 16.4
Lead, Liquid - 0.387 0.037 - - -
Magnesium - 0.063 0.27 1202 160 14
Molybdenum - 0.369 0.071 4750 126 2.9
Monel 400 - 0.319 0.11 2400 - 6.4
Nickel 52.4 0.321 0.12 2642 133 5.8
Nichrome (80% NI-20% Cr) - 0.302 0.11 2550 - 7.3
Platinum 41.36 0.775 0.035 3225 49 4.9
Silver 247.87 0.379 0.057 1760 38 10.8
Solder (50% Pb-50% Sn) - 0.323 0.051 361 17 13.1
Steel, mild 26.0 - 37.5 0.284 0.122 2570 - 6.7
Steel, Stainless 304 8.09 0.286 0.120 2550 - 9.6
Steel, Stainless 430 8.11 0.275 0.110 2650 - 6
Tantalum - 0.6 0.035 5425 - 3.6
Tin, solid 38.48 0.263 0.065 450 26.1 13
Tin, Liquid - 0.253 0.052 - - -
Titanium 99.0% 12.65 0.164 0.13 3035 - 4.7
Tungsten 100.53 0.697 0.04 6170 79 2.5
Type metal (85% Pb-15% Sb) - 0.387 0.04 500 14+- -
Zinc 67.023 0.258 0.096 786 43.3 22.1
Zirconium 145 0.234 0.067 3350 108 3.2

 

Metals Thermal Properties
Material Conductivity
W/m-C
Density
kg/m3
Specific Heat
J/kg-°C
Aluminum, 2024, Temper-T351 143.0 2.8 x 103 795.0
Aluminum, 2024, Temper-T4 121.0 2.8 x 103 795.0
Aluminum, 5052, Temper-H32 138.0 2.68 x 103 963.0
Aluminum, 5052, Temper-O 144.0 2.69 x 103 963.0
Aluminum, 6061, Temper-O 180.0 2.71 x 103 1.256 x 103
Aluminum, 6061, Temper-T4 154.0 2.71 x 103 1.256 x 103
Aluminum, 6061, Temper-T6 167.0 2.71 x 103 1.256 x 103
Aluminum, 7075, Temper-T6 130.0 2.8 x 103 1.047 x 103
Aluminum, A356, Temper-T6 128.0 2.76 x 103 900.0
Aluminum, Pure 220.0 2.707 x 103 896.0
Beryllium, Pure 175.0 1.85 x 103 1.885 x 103
Brass, Red, 85%Cu-15%Zn 151.0 8.8 x 103 380.0
Brass, Yellow, 65%Cu-35%Zn 119.0 8.8 x 103 380.0
Copper, Alloy, 11000 388.0 8.933 x 103 385.0
Copper, Aluminum bronze, 95%Cu-5%Al 83.0 8.666 x 103 410.0
Copper, Brass, 70%Cu-30%Zn 111.0 8.522 x 103 385.0
Copper, Bronze, 75%Cu-25%Sn 26.0 8.666 x 103 343.0
Copper, Constantan, 60%Cu-40%Ni 22.7 8.922 x 103 410.0
Copper, Drawn Wire 287.0 8.8 x 103 376.0
Copper, German silver, 62%Cu-15%Ni-22%Zn 24.9 8.618 x 103 394.0
Copper, Pure 386.0 8.954 x 103 380.0
Copper, Red brass, 85%Cu-9%Sn-6%Zn 61.0 8.714 x 103 385.0
Gold, Pure 318.0 18.9 x 103 130.0
Invar, 64%Fe-35%Ni 13.8 8.13 x 103 480.0
Iron, Cast 55.0 7.92 x 103 456.0
Iron, Pure 71.8 7.897 x 103 452.0
Iron, Wrought, 0.5%C 59.0 7.849 x 103 460.0
Kovar, 54%Fe-29%Ni-17%Co 16.3 8.36 x 103 432.0
Lead, Pure 35.0 11.373 x 103 130.0
Magnesium, Mg-Al, Electrolytic, 8%Al-2%Zn 66.0 1.81 x 103 1.0 x 103
Magnesium, Pure 171.0 1.746 x 103 1.013 x 103
Molybdenum 130.0 10.22 x 103 251.0
Nichrome, 80%Ni-20%Cr 12.0 8.4 x 103 420.0
Nickel, Ni-Cr, 80%Ni-20%Cr 12.6 8.314 x 103 444.0
Nickel, Ni-Cr, 90%Ni-10%Cr 17.0 8.666 x 103 444.0
Nickel, Pure 99.0 8.906 x 103 445.9
Silver, Pure 418.0 10.51 x 103 230.0
Solder, Hard, 80%Au-20%Sn 57.0 15.0 x 103 15.0
Solder, Hard, 88%Au-12%Ge 88.0 15.0 x 103 No Data
Solder, Hard, 95%Au-3%Si 94.0 15.7 x 103 147.0
Solder, Soft, 60%Sn-40%Pb 50.0 9.29 x 103 180.0
Solder, Soft, 63%Sn-37%Pb 51.0 9.25 x 103 180.0
Solder, Soft, 92.5%Pb-2.5%Ag-5%In 39.0 12.0 x 103 No Data
Solder, Soft, 95%Pb-5%Sn 32.3 11.0 x 103 134.0
Steel, Carbon, 0.5%C 54.0 7.833 x 103 465.0
Steel, Carbon, 1.0%C 43.0 7.801 x 103 473.0
Steel, Carbon, 1.5%C 36.0 7.753 x 103 486.0
Steel, Chrome, Cr0% 73.0 7.897 x 103 452.0
Steel, Chrome, Cr1% 61.0 7.865 x 103 460.0
Steel, Chrome, Cr20% 22.0 7.689 x 103 460.0
Steel, Chrome, Cr5% 40.0 7.833 x 103 460.0
Steel, Chrome-Nickel, 18%Cr-8%Ni 16.3 7.817 x 103 460.0
Steel, Invar, 36%Ni 10.7 8.137 x 103 460.0
Steel, Nickel, Ni0% 73.0 7.897 x 103 452.0
Steel, Nickel, Ni20% 19.0 7.933 x 103 460.0
Steel, Nickel, Ni40% 10.0 8.169 x 103 460.0
Steel, Nickel, Ni80% 35.0 8.618 x 103 460.0
Steel, SAE 1010 59.0 7.832 x 103 434.0
Steel, SAE 1010, Sheet 63.9 7.832 x 103 434.0
Steel, Stainless, 316 16.26 8.0272 x 103 502.1
Steel, Tungsten, W0% 73.0 7.897 x 103 452.0
Steel, Tungsten, W1% 66.0 7.913 x 103 448.0
Steel, Tungsten, W10% 48.0 8.314 x 103 419.0
Steel, Tungsten, W5% 54.0 8.073 x 103 435.0
Tin, Cast, Hammered 62.5 7.352 x 103 226.0
Tin, Pure 64.0 7.304 x 103 226.5
Titanium 15.6 4.51 x 103 544.0
Tungsten 180.0 19.35 x 103 134.4
Zinc, Pure 112.2 7.144 x 103 384.3

Thermal Conductivity Conversions:
1 cal/cm2/cm/sec/°C = 10.63 watts/in - °C

117 BTU/(hr-ft F) x (.293 watt-hr/BTU) x (1.8F/C) x (ft/12 in.) = 5.14 watts/in - °C
or
117 Btu / (hr-ft-F) x .04395 watt-hr-F-ft/(Btu=°C - in) = 5.14 watts/in-°C

See our Material Manufacturing Definitions & Conversion pages for more information!

Thermal Properties of Nonmetals

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