Carbon Steel Typical Heat Treatments Case Hardening Grade Table Chart

Engineering Materials
Applications & Design

Case hardening processes harden only the exterior of the steel part, creating a hard, wear resistant skin (the "case") but preserving a tough and ductile interior. Carbon steels are not very hardenable ; therefore wide pieces cannot be through-hardened. Alloy steels have a better hardenability, so they can through-harden and do not require case hardening. This property of carbon steel can be beneficial, because it gives the surface good wear characteristics but leaves the core tough.

Case Hardening Grade for Carbon Steel

SAE
Steels1
Carbon
Temp F
Cooling
Method
Reheat
Temp F
Cooling
Medium
Carbonitriding
Temp F2
Cooling
Method
Temper
F3
1010
-
-
-
-
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1015
-
-
-
-
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1016
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
-
-
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1018
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1019
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1020
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1022
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1026
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1030
1650-1700
Water or Caustic
1450
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1109
1650-1700
Water or Oil
1400-1450
Water or Caustic4
-
-
250-400
1117
1650-1700
Water or Oil
1450-1600
Water or Caustic4
1450-1650
Oil
250-400
1118
1650-1700
Oil
1450-1600
Oil
-
-
250-400
1513
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
1518
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1522
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
1524 (1024)
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
1525
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
1526
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
1527 (1027)
1650-1700
Oil
1450
Oil
-
-
250-400
  1. Generally, it is not necessary to normalize the carbon grades for fulfilling either dimensional or machinability requirements of parts made from the steel grades listed in the table, although where dimension is of vital importance normalizing temperatures of at least 50ºF above the carburizing temperatures are sometimes required.
  2. The higher manganese steels such as 1118 and the 1500 series are not usually carbonitrided. If carbonitriding is performed, care must be taken to limit the nitrogen content because high nitrogen will increase their tendency to retain austenite.
  3. Even where recommended draw temperatures are shown, the draw is not mandatory on many applications. Tempering is generally employed for a partial stress relief and improves resistance to cracking from grinding operations. Higher temperatures than those shown may be employed where the hardness specification on the finished parts permits.
  4. 3% sodium hydroxide.

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