Types of Broaching Tools Optimal Cutting Equations

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Types of Broaching Tools Optimization Cutting Equations

Typical types of broach tooling are illustrated below. Before the broaching process, a broach access hole or feature is created at a desired and optimal size to facilitate access for the broach tool and minimal material removal requirements.

Description Broach Illustration
Gear Broach- Internal Gear Broach- Internal
Rectangular Broach Rectangular Broach
Double Keyway Broach Double Keyway Broach
Single Keyway Broach Single Keyway Broach
Internal Helical Groove Broach Internal Helical Groove Broach
Round / Diametric Broach Round / Diametric Broach
Round / Diametric Broach Round / Diametric Broach
Square Broach Square Broach


Optimal Cutting Equations

Broach Tool Teeth Pitch:

The optimal broach tool pitch teeth should be specified by the depth and length of the tool cut, as well as the force required to operate the broaching tool by the machine tool.

Broach Tool Pitch Formulas Equation:

Minimum Pitch = Minimum Pitch
Allowable Pitch = Allowable Pitch

Where:

L = Length of cut by broaching tool (inches)

d = For External broaching, depth of cut per tooth as given by Table A
d = For Internal broaching, depth of cut per tooth per side or one-half difference in diameters of successive teeth for round broach tools.

F = Constant
Brittle material, F = 3 - 4 roughing operations, use 6 for finishing operations.
Ductile material, F = 4 - 7 roughing operations, use 8 for finishing operations.

b = Width of cut removed by broaching tool (inches)

P = Pressure (tons/in2), depth of cut X width of cut ( inches) see Table B

T = Rated capacity of broaching machine (tons)

Design Data Surface Broach Tools
Table A

Material to be Broached Depth of Cut per Tooth, Inch Face Angle or Rake, Degrees Clearance Angle, Degrees
Roughing a Finishing Roughing Finishing
Steel, High Tensile Strength 0.0015–0.002 0.0005 10–12 1.5–3 0.5–1
Steel, Medium Tensile Strength 0.0025–0.005 0.0005 14–18 1.5–3 0.5–1
Cast Steel 0.0025–0.005 0.0005 10 1.53 0.5
Malleable Iron 0.0025–0.005 0.0005 7 1.5–3 0.5
Cast Iron, Soft 0.006 –0.010 0.0005 10–15 1.5–3 0.5
Cast Iron, Hard 0.003 –0.005 0.0005 5 1.5–3 0.5
Zinc Die Castings 0.005 –0.010 0.0010 12 5 2
Cast Bronze 0.010 –0.025 0.0005 8 0 0
Wrought Aluminum Alloys 0.005 –0.010 0.0010 15 3 1
Cast Aluminum Alloys 0.005 –0.010 0.0010 12 3 1
Magnesium Die Castings 0.010 –0.015 0.0010 20 3 1

Broaching Pressure P
Table B

Material to be Broached
Depth d of Cut per Tooth, Inch
Pressure P, Side-cutting Broaches
0.024 0.010 0.004 0.002 0.001
Pressure P in Tons per Square Inch
Steel, High Ten. Strength 250 312 200-.004″cut
Steel, Med. Ten. Strength 158 185 243 143-.006″cut
Cast Steel 128 158 115-.006″ cut
Malleable Iron 108 128 100-.006″ cut
Cast Iron 115 115 143 115-.020″ cut
Cast Brass 50 50 ............
Brass, Hot Pressed 85 85 ............
Zinc Die Castings 70 70 ............
Cast Bronze 35 35 ............
Wrought Aluminum 70 70 ............
Cast Aluminum 85 85 ............
Magnesium Alloy 35 35 ............

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