Wood Engineering Properties #3 Engineering Properties

Civil Engineering Design and Engineering

Strength and engineering properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch–pound) 

Common
species
names
Specific
gravity
Static Bending
Impact
Bending
(in.)
Compression
Parallel
to Grain
(lbf/in2)
Compression
Perpendicular
bending (in.)
to grain
(lbf/in2)
Shear
Parallel
to
Grain
(lbf/in2)
Tension
Perpendicular
to
Grain
(lbf/in2)
Side
hardness
(lbf)
Modulus
of
Rupture
(lbf/in2)
Modulus
of
elasticity
(× 106 lbf/in2)
Maximum
Working
load
(in-lbf/in3)
Hardwoods
Pine,
Eastern white
0.34
4,900
0.99
5.2
17
2,440
220
680
250
290
0.35
8,600
1.24
6.8
18
4,800
440
900
310
380
Pine,
Jack
0.40
6,000
1.07
7.2
26
2,950
300
750
360
400
0.43
9,900
1.35
8.3
27
5,660
580
1,170
420
570
Pine,
Loblolly
0.47
7,300
1.40
8.2
30
3,510
390
860
260
450
0.51
12,800
1.79
10.4
30
7,130
790
1,390
470
690
Pine,
Lodgepole
0.38
5,500
1.08
5.6
20
2,610
250
680
220
330
0.41
9,400
1.34
6.8
20
5,370
610
880
290
480
Pine,
Longleaf
0.554
8,500
1.59
8.9
35
4,320
480
1,040
330
590
0.59
14,500
1.98
11.8
34
8,470
960
1,510
470
870
Pine,
Pitch
0.47
6,800
1.20
9.2
2,950
360
860
0.52
10,800
1.43
9.2
5,940
820
1,360
Pine,
Pond
0.51
7,400
1.28
7.5
3,660
440
940
0.56
11,600
1.75
8.6
7,540
910
1,380
Pine,
Ponderosa
0.38
5,100
1.00
5.2
21
2,450
280
700
310
320
0.40
9,400
1.29
7.1
19
5,320
580
1,130
420
460
Pine,
Red
0.41
5,800
1.28
6.1
26
2,730
260
690
300
340
0.46
11,000
1.63
9.9
26
6,070
600
1,210
460
560
Pine,
Sand
0.46
7,500
1.02
9.6
3,440
450
1,140
0.48
11,600
1.41
9.6
6,920
836
Pine,
Shortleaf
0.47
7,400
1.39
8.2
30
3,530
350
910
320
440
0.51
13,100
1.75
11.0
33
7,270
820
1,390
470
690
Pine,
Slash
0.54
8,700
1.53
9.6
3,820
530
960
0.59
16,300
1.98
13.2
8,140
1020
1,680
Pine,
Spruce
0.41
6,000
1.00
2,840
280
900
450
0.44
10,400
1.23
5,650
730
1,490
660
Pine,
Sugar
0.34
4,900
1.03
5.4
17
2,460
210
720
270
270
0.36
8,200
1.19
5.5
18
4,460
500
1,130
350
380
Pine,
Virginia
0.45
7,300
1.22
10.9
34
3,420
390
890
400
540
0.48
13,000
1.52
13.7
32
6,710
910
1,350
380
740
Pine,
Western white
0.35
4,700
1.19
5.0
19
2,430
190
680
260
260
0.38
9,700
1.46
8.8
23
5,040
470
1,040
420
Redwood,
Old-growth
0.38
7,500
1.18
7.4
21
4,200
420
800
260
410
0.40
10,000
1.34
6.9
19
6,150
700
940
240
480

Redwood,
Young-growth
0.34
5,900
0.96
5.7
16
3,110
270
890
300
350
0.35
7,900
1.10
5.2
15
5,220
520
1,110
250
420
Spruce,
Black
0.38
6,100
1.38
7.4
24
2,840
240
739
100
370
0.42
10,800
1.61
10.5
23
5,960
550
1,230
520
Spruce,
Engelmann
0.33
4,700
1.03
5.1
16
2,180
200
640
240
260
0.35
9,300
1.30
6.4
18
4,480
410
1,200
350
390
Spruce,
Red
0.37
6,000
1.33
6.9
18
2,720
260
750
220
350
0.40
10,800
1.61
8.4
25
5,540
550
1,290
350
490
Spruce,
Sitka
0.37
5,700
1.23
6.3
24
2,670
280
760
250
350
0.40
10,200
1.57
9.4
25
5,610
580
1,150
370
510
Spruce,
White
0.33
5,000
1.14
6.0
22
2,350
210
640
220
320
0.36
9,400
1.43
7.7
20
5,180
430
970
360
480
Spruce,
Tamarack
0.49
7,200
1.24
7.2
28
3,480
390
860
260
380
0.53
11,600
1.64
7.1
23
7,160
800
1,280
400
590

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