Wood Engineering Properties for Hardwoods

Civil Engineering Design and Engineering

Strength and engineering properties of some commercially important woods grown in the United States (inch–pound) 

Common
species
names
Specific
gravity
Static Bending
Impact
Bending
(in.)
Compression
Parallel
to Grain
(lbf/in2)
Compression
Perpendicular
bending (in.)
to grain
(lbf/in2)
Shear
Parallel
to
Grain
(lbf/in2)
Tension
Perpendicular
to
Grain
(lbf/in2)
Side
hardness
(lbf)
Modulus
of
Rupture
(lbf/in2)
Modulus
of
elasticity
(× 106 lbf/in2)
Maximum
Working
load
(in-lbf/in3)
Hardwoods
Alder,
red
0.37
6,500
1.17
8.0
22
2,960
250
770
390
440
0.41
9,800
1.38
8.4
20
5,820
440
1,080
420
590
Ash
Black
0.45
6,000
1.04
12.1
33
2,300
350
860
490
520
0.49
12,600
1.60
14.9
35
5,970
760
1,570
700
850
Ash
Blue
0.53
9,600
1.24
14.7
-
4,180
810
1,540
-
-
0.58
13,800
1.40
14.4
-
6,980
1,420
2,030
-
-
Ash
Green
0.53
9,500
1.40
11.8
35
4,200
730
1,260
590
870
0.56
14,100
1.66
13.4
32
7,080
1,310
1,910
700
1,200
Ash
Oregon
0.50
7,600
1.13
12.2
39
3,510
530
1,190
590
790
0.55
12,700
1.36
14.4
33
6,040
1,250
1,790
720
1,160
Ash
White
0.55
9,500
1.44
15.7
38
3,990
670
1,350
590
960
0.60
15,000
1.74
16.6
43
7,410
1,160
1,910
940
1,320
Aspen
Bigtooth
0.36
5,400
1.12
5.7
-
2,500
210
730
-
-
0.39
9,100
1.43
7.7
-
5,300
450
1,080
-
-
Aspen
Quaking
0.35
5,100
0.86
6.4
22
2,140
180
660
230
300
0.38
8,400
1.18
7.6
21
4,250
370
850
260
350
Basswood,
American
0.32
5,000
1.04
5.3
16
2,220
170
600
280
250
0.37
8,700
1.46
7.2
16
4,730
370
990
350
410
Beech,
American
0.56
8,600
1.38
11.9
43
3,550
540
1,290
720
850
0.64
14,900
1.72
15.1
41
7,300
1,010
2,010
1,010
1,300
Birch
Paper
0.48
6,400
1.17
16.2
49
2,360
270
840
380
560
0.55
12,300
1.59
16.0
34
5,690
600
1,210
-
910
Birch
Sweet
0.60
9,400
1.65
15.7
48
3,740
470
1,240
430
970
0.65
16,900
2.17
18.0
47
8,540
1,080
2,240
950
1,470
Birch
Yellow
0.55
8,300
1.50
16.1
48
3,380
430
1,110
430
780
0.62
16,600
2.01
20.8
55
8,170
970
1,880
920
1,260
Butternut
0.36
5,400
0.97
8.2
24
2,420
220
760
430
390
0.38
8,100
1.18
8.2
24
5,110
460
1,170
440
490
Cherry,
black
0.47
8,000
1.31
12.8
33
3,540
360
1,130
570
660
0.50
12,300
1.49
11.4
29
7,110
690
1,700
560
950
Chestnut,
American
0.40
5,600
0.93
7.0
24
2,470
310
800
440
420
0.43
8,600
1.23
6.5
19
5,320
620
1,080
460
540
Cottonwood
Balsam,
poplar
0.31
3,900
0.75
4.2
-
1,690
140
500
-
-
0.34
6,800
1.10
5.0
-
4,020
300
790
-
-
Cottonwood
Black
0.31
4,900
1.08
5.0
20
2,200
160
610
270
250
0.35
8,500
1.27
6.7
22
4,500
300
1,040
330
350
Cottonwood
Eastern
0.37
5,300
1.01
7.3
21
2,280
200
680
410
340
0.40
8,500
1.37
7.4
20
4,910
380
930
580
430
Elm
American
0.46
7,200
1.11
11.8
38
2,910
360
1,000
590
620
0.50
11,800
1.34
13.0
39
5,520
690
1,510
660
830
Elm
Rock
0.57
9,500
1.19
19.8
54
3,780
610
1,270
-
-
0.63
14,800
1.54
19.2
56
7,050
1,230
1,920
-
-
Slippery
0.48
8,000
1.23
15.4
47
3,320
420
1,110
640
660
0.53
13,000
1.49
16.9
45
6,360
820
1,630
530
860
Hackberry
0.49
6,500
0.95
14.5
48
2,650
400
1,070
630
700
0.53
11,000
1.19
12.8
43
5,440
890
1,590
580
880

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